Directives Use of Force Definitions

  1. Active Aggression
    A threat or overt act of an assault (through physical or verbal means), coupled with the present ability to carry out the threat or assault, which reasonably indicates that an assault or injury to any person is about to happen, unless intervention occurs.
  2. Administrative Review
    A written determination that requires the gathering and evaluating of information to develop a course of action.
  3. After Action Report
    A written report that describes a police action and assesses its adherence to policy through critique and evaluation using required criteria.
  4. Arcing
    Activating a conducted electrical weapon (CEW) without discharging the probes or making contact with a subject, to serve as a warning to the subject.
  5. Boxing in
    A coordinated tactic of positioning police vehicles around a subject's vehicle to stop or prevent the start of a pursuit.
  6. Complaint of Improper Force
    A complaint by a subject or person at the scene, or while in police custody, of improper force during a police action. Complaints of improper force include complaints of inappropriate and/or excessive force.
  7. Complaint of Physical Injury
    An assertion by a person that a member caused the person physical injury.
  8. Conducted Electrical Weapon (CEW)
    A weapon, including tasers, designed primarily to discharge electrical charges into a subject that will cause involuntary muscle contractions and overrides the subject's voluntary motor responses.
  9. CEW Application
    The contact and delivery of an electrical impulse to a subject using CEW.
  10. CEW Cycle
    An activation of the CEW for a duration of up to five seconds.
  11. Constitutional Force Standard
    Under Graham v Connor and subsequent cases, the federal courts have established that government use of force must comply with the "reasonableness" requirement of the Fourth Amendment. Under this standard, members must choose from the objectively reasonable force options at a scene.
  12. Cover Fire
    When a member discharges a firearm in a tactical situation in response to the ongoing threat of the use of deadly physical force by a subject, and direct action against the subject is not feasible. Cover fire is not intended to strike a subject, but is meant only to prevent a subject from taking further action against the police or others that could result in death or serious physical injury. Cover fire is also intended to allow officers to take actions to resolve the situation, such as effecting a rescue, advancing or retreating or delivering chemical agents.
  13. Critical Firearm Discharge
    Each discharge of a firearm by a member. This term includes discharges at the range or in training, or negligent discharges not intended as an application of force, which are still subject to administrative investigation.
  14. Deadly Force
    Also known as lethal force. Any use of force likely to cause death or serious physical injury, including the use of a firearm, carotid neck hold, or strike to the head, neck or throat with a hard object.
  15. De-escalation
    A deliberate attempt to reduce the necessity or intensity of force to resolve confrontation.
  16. Drive Stun
    The process of applying energy to a subject through the terminal on a cartridge or conducted electrical weapon.
  17. Force
    Physical coercion used to effect, influence or persuade am individual to comply with an officer, to include the intentional pointing of a firearm at an individual. Control holds and handcuffing without resistance do not constitute force.
  18. Immediate Cover
    A member who stands ready to deploy additional control if needed.
  19. Improper Use of Force
    The application of force where there is insufficient justification for its use, whether the use of force is more than is objectively necessary or violates policy.
  20. Involved Member
    For the purpose of this directive, 1010.00, Use of Force, an involved member is a Bureau member who is involved in the application of force or directs another to use force.
  21. Less Lethal Force
    A force application that is not intended or expected to cause death or serious injury and that is commonly understood to have less potential for causing death or serious injury than conventional, more lethal police tactics. Nonetheless, use of less-lethal force can result in death or serious injury.
  22. Less Lethal Weapons
    Weapons designed and intended to apply less lethal force. These weapons include, but are not limited to, CEWs, impact weapons, impact munitions, aerosol restraints.
  23. Mental Health Crisis
    An incident in which someone with an actual or perceived mental illness experiences intense feelings of personal distress (e.g., anxiety, depression, anger, fear, panic, hopelessness), a thought disorder (e.g., visual or auditory hallucinations, delusions, sensory impairment or cognitive impairment), obvious changes in functioning (e.g., neglect of personal hygiene) and/or catastrophic life events (e.g., disruptions in personal relationships, support systems or living arrangements; loss of autonomy or parental rights; victimization or natural disasters), which may, but not necessarily, result in an upward trajectory of intensity culminating in thoughts or acts that are dangerous to self and/or others.
  24. Mental Illness
    Health conditions that are characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination thereof) associated with distress and/or impaired functioning. Alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior contribute to a host of problems-patient distress, impaired functioning, or heightened risk of death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom.
  25. Misconduct
    Conduct by a member that violates Bureau regulations, orders, directives, or other standards of conduct required of city employees.
  26. Necessary
    No objectively reasonable effective alternative exists to affect a lawful purpose.
  27. Non-Disciplinary Corrective Action
    Action other than discipline taken by a PPB supervisor to enable or encourage a member to improve their performance.
  28. Objectively Reasonable
    The reasonableness of a use of force is based on the totality of circumstances known by an officer at the time of action or decision making. It shall be judged from the perspective of a reasonable officer on the scene, without the clarity of 20/20 hindsight after the event has concluded. The measure of reasonableness gives consideration to the reality that officers are often forced to make split-second decisions in circumstances that are tense, uncertain and rapidly evolving. In the application or evaluation of the use of force, uses of the terms reasonable and reasonably in this policy refer to objective reasonableness.
  29. Passive Resistance
    A person's non-cooperation with a member that does not involve violence or other active conduct by the individual.
  30. Physical Injury
    As defined in ORS 161.015 (7), the impairment of a person's physical condition or causing a person substantial pain. Substantial pain refers to degree and duration of the pain suffered by the victim, the pain must be considerable and must be more than momentary.
  31. Physical Resistance
    A person's physical attempt to evade a member's control that does not rise to the levels of active aggression.
  32. Probe Cartridge
    A device that contains two probes connected to light gauge wire that is propelled and attaches to the subject upon activation of the CEW.
  33. Pursuit Intervention Techniques (PIT)
    A driving technique designed to stop a fleeing motorist safely and quickly by making contact with the fleeing car at a specific point on the vehicle, which throws the car into a spin and brings it to a stop.
  34. Ramming
    The use of an emergency (police) vehicle, other than in a pursuit intervention technique or boxing in maneuver to purposely cause contact with another vehicle in order to disable the vehicle.
  35. Serious Physical Injury
    As defined in ORS 161.015(8), physical injury which creates a substantial risk of death, or which causes serious and protracted disfigurement, protracted impairment of health or protracted loss or impairment of function of any bodily organ.
  36. Serious Use of Force
    • 1. All uses of force by a member that reasonably appear to create or do create a substantial risk of death, serious disfigurement, disability, or impairment of the functioning of any body part or organ;
    • 2. All critical firearm discharges by a member;
    • 3. All uses of force by a member resulting in a significant injury, including a broken bone, an injury requiring hospitalization, or an injury deemed to be serious by a member's supervisor;
    • 4. All head, neck and throat strikes with an object or carotid neck holds;
    • 5. Force used upon juveniles known or reasonably assumed to be under fifteen or individuals known or reasonably assumed to be pregnant;
    • 6. All uses of force by a member resulting in a loss of consciousness;
    • 7. More than two applications of a CEW on an individual during a single interaction, regardless of the mode or duration of the application, regardless of whether the applications are by the same or different officers, and regardless of whether the CEW application is longer than 15 seconds, whether continuous or consecutive;
    • 8. Any strike, blow, kick, CEW cycle, or similar use of force against a handcuffed, otherwise restrained, under control, or in custody subject, with or without injury; and
    • 9. Any use of force referred by a member's supervisor to Professional Standards Division (PSD) which PSD deems serious.
  37. Takedown
    Physical coercion used by a member to affect, direct, or influence a person to go to the ground not under their own control.
  38. Warning Shot
    Discharge of a firearm for the purpose of compelling compliance from an individual, but not intended to cause physical injury.
  39. Witness Member
    For the purpose of this directive, 1010.00, Use of Force, a witness member is a Bureau member who observes or has firsthand knowledge of the events surrounding the use of force by another member, and other than observing the incident, did not use force themselves. Additionally, a member who observes or has knowledge of the events surrounding a member's direction to another to use force.
Card Set
Directives Use of Force Definitions
1010.00 Use of Force Definitions