Pharmacology for Endocarditis

  1. How do you know an antibacterial is a carbapenem?
    -penem
  2. What is the MOA of carbapenems?
    Beta-lactam antibacterial, so inhibits formation of the bacterial cell wall via PBP (aka transpeptidase)
  3. Which beta-lactam antibiotics have the broadest spectrum of activity?
    Carbapenems
  4. What is the spectrum of activity of carbapenems?
    • Gram positives
    • Gram negatives
    • E. coli ESBL
    • Anaerobic B. fragilis
    • NOT MRSA
  5. What is the drug of choice for ESBL producing aerobic gram-negative bacilli?
    Carbapenems
  6. What antibiotic has activity against E. coli and Klepsiella KPC types?
    Vaborbactam + meropenem
  7. Do all carbapenems have activity against pseudomonas aeruginosa?
    All, BUT ertapenem
  8. What are the adverse effects of carbapenems?
    • Seizures
    • Allergic reactions
    • C. diff colitis
  9. What is the MOA of aminoglycosides?
    Inhibition of protein metabolism by binding to 30S subunit ribosomal proteins
  10. What are the main clinically used aminoglycosides?
    • Gentamicin
    • Tobramycin
    • Amikacin
  11. What is the spectrum of activity of aminoglycosides?
    • Aerobic gram-negative bacteria
    • MSSA
    • NO activity against bacteroides fragilis
  12. What are the three facets of aminoglycoside antibacterial activity?
    • Concentration-dependent killing
    • Presence of a post-antibiotic effect
    • Synergism with other drugs
  13. What is the best route of administration of aminoglycosides?
    Poor oral absorption, systemic infections require IV or IM administration
  14. What are the adverse effects of aminoglycosides?
    • Nephrotoxicity
    • Ototoxicity
  15. How can you limit the adverse effects of aminoglycosides?
    • Appropriate dosage
    • Limit duration
    • Serum level monitoring
    • Monitor renal function
  16. What is the mechanism of action of aztreonam?
    Beta-lactam antibacterial, so inhibits formation of the bacterial cell wall via PBP (aka transpeptidase)
  17. What kind of antibacterial is aztreonam?
    Monobactam
  18. What is the spectrum of activity of aztreonam?
    Gram negative aerobes
  19. What are the two main bacteria that aztreonam is used against?
    • E. coli
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  20. What is the only allergy cross-sensitivity potential with aztreonam?
    Ceftazidime
  21. What are the primary treatment options for treating enterococcal endocarditis?
    • Penicillin G + gentamicin x 4-6 weeks
    • Ampicillin + gentamicin x 4-6 weeks
  22. What are the 5 important pharmacological concepts pertaining to endocarditis treatment?
    • Long treatment duration (4-6 weeks)
    • High-dose IV antibiotics
    • Has bactericidal activity
    • Antibiotic combinations for bactericidal synergy
    • Preventive antibiotics for high risk patients
  23. How is endocarditis prevented after dental procedures?
    Oral prophylaxis of amoxicillin 1 hour before procedure
  24. What is the bacteria causing endocarditis after dental procedures?
    Oral streptococci
Author
stepha998
ID
344746
Card Set
Pharmacology for Endocarditis
Description
ATSU
Updated