"subq" or "sc" the drug is injected to form a bolus just under the skin
"Im" the needle is inserted into a muscle and a bolus is left there.
"ip" the needle is inserted directly into the peritoneal cavity, not typically done with humans usually done on rats.
"iv" the end of the needle is inserted directly into a vein and the drug is injected directly into the blood stream.
known as mainlining and is the fastest route of admin.
the lining of the inside of the lungs provides a large surface area in close proximity to many blood vessels, this method leads to rapid onset of drug action and intense effects.
administration through the oral mucosa under the tongue.
admin through the oral mucosa between the cheek and gum.
usually a barrier to all agents, now there are several transdermal (across the skin) delivery systems. e.g. nicotine and birth control patches.
BBB (Blood brain barrier )
protects the CNS from free diffusion of materials out of the blood.
occurs when two drugs in combination induce effects greater than the sum of their individual effects.
the dynamic processes involved in the movement of drugs within biological systems with respect to the drugs.
two drugs produce the same overt effect of the two drugs taken together is the sum of their individual effects.
the number of receptors available does not change the agonists original maximal effect can still be achieved (assuming a large enough dose of the agonist is administered)
the number of available receptors declines thus, the maximal effect achievable decreases and the slope of the agonists response function is shallower
is a from of drug interaction in which two drugs act at two different kinds of receptors that is receptors whose biological actions oppose each other
per os or po
taken into the mouth and swallowed
situation in which the response to one drug is decreased in the presence of another drug
when two drugs together produce a greater effect than either drug produces (involves both potentiation and addition)
is a drug that has a definite affinity for a receptor but has little or no efficacy after being bound to it
if the agonist is capable of dissociating from the receptor
is incapable of being dissociated or displaced from the receptor
Oil/ water partition coefficient
different drugs have differing degrees of lipid solubility which are expressed as this, to test lipid solubility.
buccal membranes or mucosa
chewing tobacco is absorbed through the ...
one type of tissue in which there is a great deal of drug accumulation is _______ tissue which makes up approximately 18-28% of the body
drugs site(s) of action and route of administration
the number of these membranes depends upon the
one of the most fundamental factors affecting the passage of molecules from one side of a membrane to the other is the ....... of molecules on the two sides
the greater maximal response and shift to the left of the dose response function for A in the presence B (A + B) would indicate that B ..........the effects of A
the shift to the left in the dose-response function of A in the presence of D (A+D) would indicate that ......... is involved since D by itself is capable of inducing the same degree of effect as A and the maximal response of A was unchanged in the presence of D.
the shift to the left in the dose response function for A in the presence of E(E+A) would indicate that E ........the effects of A. Since E was incapable of inducing any effects by itself.
the shift to the right, without change in the slope of maximal response in the dose-response function for A in the presence of C(A+C) would indicate that C is a ....... of A
the shift to the right in the dose-response function of B and the lower maximal response achieved in the presence of C(B+C) would indicate that C is a ........ of B