How much does bovine TB cost a year?
Besides TB what do badgers cost the UK a year in damages? What are these damages?
- £41.5 million
- Predation of lambs
- Crop damage
What bacteria contaminate silage?
When was strychnine poisoning (of moles) banned in the UK?
How much did mole damage cost per landowner in Atkinson et al. 1994?
£126 (~£235 in 2015)
In Baker et al. 2016 who spent the most on mole control?
In King et al. 2017 what was the success of beehive fences in deterring elephants and which groups were most deterred?
- 80% did not breach the fence
- Large groups most deterred --> especially good to reduce crop damage :)
In Chellia et al. 2010 how successful was chilli deterrent of elephants and which groups were most deterred?
- Males breached on 38-92% occasions
- Females only 0-6%, especially in herds with young calves
As part of management, elephants were culled in Zimbabwe. How many were killed and how much of their meat was donated to locals?
What are three ways wildlife may lead to human mortality?
- 1. Diseases (e.g. rabies)
- 2. Transport collisions
- 3. Direct attacks
How many people are killed by sharks every year?
How many people die from snakes a year? How many physical disabilities result from snakes?
- 81-143000 (WHO estimation)
- 3x as many amputations and physical disabilities
Where did emus come in Australias deaths?
Number 10 - 5 people killed a year
Who did "the little gentleman in black velvet" kill and when was it?
How many people a year are killed by elephants in Africa and Asia?
- Africa: 17.6
- Asia: 1000 over 3 years
How many people are supposedly killed by hippos a year?
What percentage of attacks by sloth bears are fatal?
How many people are killed by lions a year in Tanzania?
38 per year
What are 3 preventative measures of human fatalities as a result of wildlife?
- 1. Education
- 2. Spatial separation
- 3. Temporal separation
In the US and EU how many fatalities and injuries are there as a result of road collisions with large mammals and how much does this cost?
- US: 200 fatalities, 29000 injuries, >£1 billion
- EU: 300 fatalities, 30000 injuries, > £1 billion
How many introduced species become invasive?
1 in 10
Give 5 ways invasive species may arise.
- 1. Agriculture
- 2. Companion animals
- 3. Sport hunting
- 4. Aesthetic reasons
- 5. Misguided conservation actions (e.g. North American beavers vs European beavers)
Approximately what percentage of species are listed as invasive?
Which is the worst group of animals to be affected by invasive species? What percentage are affected? What is their main issue?
- 16% of Amphibians
- Chytrid fungus
How many mammals, birds and reptiles are affected by an invasive species?
Of the IUCN's top 100 invasive species, how many are vertebrates? How many are fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals?
- 27 vertebrates
- Fish: 8
- Amphibian: 2
- Reptile: 1
- Birds: 3
- Mammals: 13
What are the four stages of management on the invasion curve?
- 1. Prevention
- 2. Eradication
- 3. Containment
- 4. Asset-based protection & long-term management
What are the labels on the axes of the invasion curve?
Where is the cane toad native?
Central and South America
When and where was the cane toad introduces to protect sugarcane?
When was the cane toad introduced to Australia?
1935 (in Gordonvale)
In how many countries is the cane toad classified as an invasive species?
What factors make the cane toad a good invasive species?
- Relatively large (largest 1.3kg pet!)
- Broad diet including scavenging
- Highly fecund - ♂ lay >8000 eggs
In Jolly et al.2015, what effects did the cane toad have on species diversity and abundance?
- Diversity: reduced by 31%
- Abundance: reduced by 40%
Which species benefitted from the presence of cane toads in Jolly et al. 2015?
- Brush turkey
- Since predators of their eggs were reduced
What effects of cane toads were seen on different monitor lizards in a study by Doody et al. 2017?
(After 6-7 years and then after 15 years)
- Yellow Spotted:- 80% decline
- - no longer detected
- Mitchell's Monitor:- 40% decline
- - No longer detected
- Merton's water monitor:- 50% decline
- - further 40% decline
What species was trained to avoid cane toads and what method was used?
- Northern Quoll
- Conditioned aversion
When and where and why/how was the Burmese python introduced?
- Hurricane Andrew: destroyed breeding facility
How are Burmese pythons managed?
- - Capturing them on the road when basking
- - Judas animals
In a study by Smith et al. 2016 looking at judas pythons, how much did it cost per snake?
- (But the snakes caught were bigger than those caught on roads so had greater breeding potential)
What impacts have pythons had?
- Decline in many mammals
- Increase in small rodents
- Increase in mosquitoes biting humans
- Increase in some species (e.g. turtles due to reduced egg predation)
Where is the Brown Tree Snake native and where was it accidentally introduced?
- Native: North Australia and Papua New Guinea
- Introduced: Guam after WWII as stowaways on planes
What impacts have brown tree snakes had on Guam?
- Predated seed-dispersing birds to point of extirpation
- ⇒61-92% reduction in seeding recruitment
Where is the Common Mynah native and where was it introduced?
- Native: Asia
- Introduced: Australia, Hawaii, NZ, South Africa and Japan (Many times to control insect pests unsuccessfully)
What percentage of Sooty Tern eggs are predated by Mynahs?
What impacts does the common mynah have on cavity-nesting species, small species and larger species in Graroch et al. 2012?
- 3/8 cavity-nesting species impacted
- 7/8 small species
- None of the larger species
What effects of trapping mynahs were seen on large and local scales in Graroch et al. 2014?
- Large scale: no sig. effect
- Local scale: significant effect in reducing mynah numbers
What is suggested to citizens as the method to kill mynahs?
Carbon Monoxide (from car exhaust)
How many mynahs died in the traps (Liney et al. 2017)?
What percentage of species considered endangered or critically endangered?
What percentage and how many endangered or critically endangered species are found on islands?
Of the 1189 endangered/critically endangered species found on islands what percentage are found ONLY on islands?
Of the 1189 endangered/critically endangered species found on islands what percentage are restricted to a single island?
What percentage of amphibians on islands are EN or CR?
What percentage of reptiles on islands are EN or CR?
What percentage of birds on islands are EN or CR?
What percentage of mammals on islands are EN or CR?
What percentage of the 1288 islands have at least one invasive species?
How many and what percentage of the 1189 EN/CR species on islands have been extirpated from at least one island?
How many extinctions have there been as a result of invasive species on islands? Over how many islands have they occurred?
- 273 extinctions
- 202 islands
Which island is the worst for extinctions due to invasive species?
- - 5 birds
- - 2 reptiles
- - 1 mammal have all gone extinct
How many species are listed by the IUCN?
In Tershey et al. 2015 the IUCN lists how many extinct animals and how many of these are island species?
- 757 extinct animals
- 461 (61%) island species
What percentage of amphibian, bird, and mammal species are island species?
- Amphibians and Mammals: 54%
- Birds: 95%
When were red foxes supposedly introduced to Tasmania?
When was the 1080 baiting campaign of red foxes implemented in Tasmania?
How much did the eradication of foxes in Tasmania programme cost?
(AU) $30-50 million
What explains the fox sightings in Tasmania despite there never actually being any there?
What are the 3 ways of eradicating a population?
- 1. prevent all reproduction
- 2. kill all individuals
- 3. translocate all individuals
When and how many hedgehogs were introduced to South Uist?
What are the effects of hedgehogs presence or absence on different islands on the birds there?
- Hedgehogs present:
- South Uist: Decline by 39.6-47% (North to south)
- Benbecula: Decline by 17.1%
- Hedgehogs Absent:
- Baleshare: Increase by 31.6%
- North Uist: Both increase and decline
- Berneray: Decline by 2.2.%
How many of 5000 hedgehogs on South Uist were culled as part of the Uist Wader Project and what year was this? How much did it cost ber hedgehog?
- 700 culled in 2003
- Cost £800 per hedgehog
What were the results of a 2004 study on translocation of hedgehogs?
- Wild controls: approx 60% survival
- Recipient wild: 95%
- Rehabilitated: close to control
- Directly translocated: 40% (couldn't cope with fast change)
- Captive translocation: 82% survival
How much did the removal of 2400 hedgehogs from South Uist cost?
As of Nov 2017, how many successful island eradications have happened and how many attempts were needed?
- 925 successes
- Over 1424 attempts
As of Nov 2017, how many failed eradications on islands were there and over how many attempts?
- 140 failed
- Over 179 attempts
What are the two possible figures of success rate of island eradications?
- 88% (excluding attempt number)
- 58% (if you include number of attempts)
What percentage of eradication attempts do rodents, ungulates and lagomorphs account for?
What percentage of eradication attempts do non-mammal species account for?
In New Zealand on North Island, what are four invasive species and what order should you control them in?
- Stoats, black rats, house mice, brushtailed possums
- 1. Take out stoats as they have no significant effect on the others
- 2. Take out remaining 3 simultaneously to avoid adverse population changes
- --> Possum removal leads to increase in rats
- --> Possum AND rat removal leads to increase in mice
On which island are house mice 50% larger than anywhere else in the world? How many chicks do they kill a year?
- Gough island
- 600,000 chicks
Which island was home to black rats, house mice, rabbits, cats and weka? How big was it? When was it discovered?
- Macquarie Island
When did control of rabbits start on Macquarie Island?
When did control of cats start on Macquarie Island?
- Fully funded eradication in 1996
- ⇒ last cat killed 2000
What control of rabbits was implemented on Macquarie Island?
- Viral Haemorrhagic Disease released in 2011
- ⇒ 80-90% population reduction
-Aerial baiting - 240 tonnes bait dropped
- Hunting phase (Aug 2011 to Apr 2012)
- -search dogs found last 13 (expected 150)
How many attempts of eradications have there been in Europe? How many species?
- 15 attempts of 7 species
- (11 successful, 3 failed and 1 ongoing)
What is an example of mammal eradication in the UK and when was it?
- Coypu in the 80's
- 30,000 animals removed from East Anglia
What factor in control decreases with increased control area?
- Cost per unit area
- (eg. because there's a bigger edge to centre ratio which reduces impacts of immigration)
How much is estimated as the cost of worldwide conservation a year?
(US) $21.5 BILLION
How much would it cost to eradicate a species covering an area the size of the UK? What percentage is this of global conservation a year?
Where was biological control of cats used?
How do gene drives work?
Drive sex ratio in certain
- 1st Gene:insert gene involved in teste development originally found on Y chromosome on a NON-sex chromosome ⇒ XX females inherit it and develop male
- 2nd Gene:
- Distorts transmission of gene by linking with halotype genes which have inheritance of 90% (instead of normal 50%)
What were the results of Jones et al. 2016 which considered 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands?
- - recovery of 115 resident species
- - 67 native species recolonise their island without human help
- - reintroduction of 90 species
- - 34 species colonise that weren't there previously
Based on a questionnaire survey by Moore et al. 1999, what was the annual cost of badgers in England and Wales?
- £41.5 million
- -mostly in the South West
- -10-45% reported burrowing
- -10-20% reported crop damage
- -<10% reported lamb predation
In Moore et al. 1999, how much damage was down to burrowing?
Based on study by Litchenfield et al. 2015, what was the reduction in attacks when fortified bomas are used?
What were the total savings from bomas if they last 10 years in the study by Litchenfield et al. 2015?
- (Based on $125 per boma - 44 used. Loss of $448 per attack costing $20832 in total)