Evaluation Reports and Clinical Techniques

  1. Components of an Evaluation Report
    • Identifying info
    • Complaint and referral 
    • Case history (family, medical, educational, work, developmental)
    • Hearing Screening
    • OME
    • Specific areas of evaluation (language, artic, voice, fluency)
    • Impressions 
    • Diagnosis
    • Recommendations
  2. Hearing Screenings
    • clean head phones with alcohol 
    • check audiometer before use
    • orient client to the task
    • 20 dB in a noise free setting 
    • 25 dB in a quiet setting
    • test frequencies: 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 Hz
    • if failed, retest in 2 weeks
    • if failed again, refer for full audiological evaluation
  3. Diadochokinetic Tasks
    • assess how consistently, accurately, and rapidly a client is able to make repeated movements 
    • client makes as many prescribed movements as possible in the given time OR the clinician gives a number of times to make the movement and sees how long it takes the client 
    • use norms with caution (small sample with undefined age groups)
  4. Oral Mechanism Exam (OME)
    provides info about the structural and functional adequacy of the articulators used in speech sound production
  5. Target Behaviors
    any skill or action you teach a client or a student
  6. Normative Target Behaviors
    behaviors that are appropriate for the client's age norms
  7. Client Specific Target Behaviors
    • selected regardless of norms 
    • best serve a client's communicative, educational, and social needs
    • culturally and linguistically appropriate
  8. Continuous Reinforcement
    • presented after every correct performance of a target behavior 
    • generates a high response rate
    • used to establish new target behaviors
  9. Intermittent Reinforcement
    • presented after SOME correct performances of a target behavior
    • some responses are reinforced and others are not 
    • responses are strengthened more when they are not reinforced continuously
  10. Positive Reinforcement
    present a motivating stimulus to increase a desired behavior
  11. Negative Reinforcement
    • removing unpleasant stimulus once the desired behavior is produced 
    • used to increase probability of a desired behavior
  12. Social Reinforcement
    • smile, nod, and verbal praise
    • has to effect change by its own power
  13. Conditioned Generalized Reinforcement
    • small prizes that can be converted to other prizes long term (sticker book)
    • has a more pervasive effect on behavior 
    • can affect a response in different events
  14. Feedback
    information given to a person or mechanism about how the person has been performing
  15. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement
    reinforcement given after a specific number of responses
  16. Variable Ratio Reinforcement
    reinforcement given after a varied number of responses
  17. Fixed Interval Reinforcement
    reinforcements given after a fixed time interval
  18. Variable Interval Reinforcement
    reinforcements given after a varied time interval
  19. Primary Reinforcement
    food and water

    **not used at HU clinic
  20. Secondary Reinforcement
    • social reinforcement 
    • conditioned reinforcement 
    • performance feedback
    • verbal praise
  21. Shaping
    complex response is broken down into easier parts
  22. Expansion
    clinician comments on child's utterance and adds new and relevant information
  23. Instructions
    step by step explanation on how to complete a task
  24. Ear training/Discrimination
    distinguish between correct and incorrect productions
  25. Modeling
    • demonstration of expected behavior 
    • clinician models, child imitates
  26. Clinician Techniques from Most Supportive to Least Supportive
    • Modeling/imitation 
    • cuing/prompting
    • spontaneous production 

    **move to a different technique one 90% mastery is achieved
  27. Van Riper Approach to Articulation
    • 1. isolation 
    • 2. syllable 
    • 3. word
    • 4. phrase
    • 5. sentence
    • 6. conversational speech
  28. Elicit
    to draw out a response via actions or questions
  29. Short Term Objectives (STOs)
    • performance
    • condition 
    • standard of performance (outcome)

    Jane will produce /f/ in all word positions when presented with a visual stimulus with 95% accuracy in 3 out of 4 sessions
  30. Long Term Objectives (LTOs)
    • direction of change 
    • behavior targeted for change 
    • present level of functioning
    • expected level of functioning 
    • resources needed (therapy strategies)

    Jane will increase correct production of /f/ in all word positions moving from 50% accuracy to 90% accuracy after eight weeks of individualized therapy
  31. Morpheme
    smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of language
  32. Phoneme
    smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of language
  33. Morphology
    • the study and description of word formation in language 
    • (word ending, etc.)
  34. Phonology
    organization of sounds in language
  35. Pragmatics
    • social language 
    • use of language in social context
  36. Semantics
    meaning of words and sentences
  37. Calculate Chronological Age
    • line equation up by year month day and subtract 
    • if you have to regroup, add 12 to the months column and 30 to the days column 

    • **if days are more than 15 round up one month 
    • **if days are less than 15 omit the days in the report
Card Set
Evaluation Reports and Clinical Techniques