
ConstantPressure process (or ______ process) (______' law):
P_{i }= ___
What does this mean for final and initial volume/temperature
 Isobaric process
 Charles' law

With a fixed piston, the system is in _______, pressure must be the same on both sides of the piston
With a movable piston, because the external pressure doesn't change, the gas pressure remains ________ as the gas expands
An isobaric process appears on a pV diagram as a ________ line
 equilibrium
 constant
 horizontal line

An isobaric process is one that occurs at a _______ _______. The values of the heat and the work are generally both _______ values.
W = ____ = _______
p is the ______ ______
From the First Law:
ΔE_{th} = ___ + ___ = ___  _____
 constant pressure
 nonzero
 W = Wgas = p(V_{f}  V_{i})
 constant pressure
 ΔE_{th} = Q + W = Q  p(V_{f}  V_{i})

ConstantVolume or ________ Process (________'s law):
V_{i} = ___
p_{i}/T_{i} = ___
As the temperature increases, the pressure __________
A constantvolume process appears on a pV diagram as a _______ ______
 Isochoric
 GuyLussac's law
 V_{i} = V_{f}
 p_{i}/T_{i} = p_{f}/T_{f}
 increases
 vertical line

Isochoric Process
An ________ process is one in which there is no change in the volume
ΔV = ___ ⇒ W = ____
From the First Law:
ΔE_{th} = ____

Isochoric process
If energy is added by heat to a system kept at constant volume, all of the transferred energy remains in the system as an increase in its _______ ______
internal energy

ConstantTemperature Process (or _______ process) are under _______'s law:
T_{i} = ___
p_{i}V_{i} = _____, making it ______
 Isothermal process
 Boyle's law
 Tf
 p_{f}V_{f,} making it constant

An isothermal process appears on a pV diagram as a _______
 hyperbola

An ________ process is one that occurs at a constant temperature. Since there is no change in temperature, ΔE_{th} = ___
From the First Law:
Q = ___
Any energy that enters the system as heat must leave the system by _____
 isothermal process
 0
 W
 work

The graph of an isothermal process is known as an _______. Different temperatures correspond to different ________
 isotherm
 isotherms

What is the formula for work done on a ideal gas in an isothermal process?

Define adiabatic process and state its first law
 Adiabatic process: a process during which no energy enters or leaves the system by heat, Q = 0
 First Law: ΔE_{th} = Q + W = W

The curve of the adiabatic compression moves from a _______ ________ isotherm to a ______ _______ isotherm
 lower temperature isotherm
 higher temperature isotherm

An adiabatic process is one under which no ______ enters or leaves the system, in other words, no _____ is exchanged with the environment.
State two ways this is achieved and give an example
 heat
 heat
 Thermally insulating the walls of the system
 Having the process proceed so quickly that no heat can be exchanged
 Example: rapidly expanding gas which drops its pressure precipitously and simultaneously cools. This is the principle in a snowmaking machine

Free expansion is a unique _______ process. _____ work is done on the gas, W = ___.
Since Q = ____ and W = ____, ΔE_{th} = ____
 adiabatic process
 No work
 W = 0
 Q = 0 and W = 0
 ΔE_{th} = 0

In Free expansion, the ______ and ______ energies are the same, and no change in ________ is expected
 initial and final energies
 temperature

A ______ process is one that originates and ends at the same state. This process would not be _______ and on a PV diagram, it appears as a _______ ______.
 cyclic process
 isolated
 closed curve

In a cyclic process, the energy added by heat to the system must therefore equal the ________ of the work done on the system during the cycle
ΔE_{int} = ____ and Q = ____
The net work done per cycle = ?
 negative
 0
 W
 The net work done per cycle equals the area enclosed by the path on a PV diagram

Summarize the Q,W and ΔE_{th} different types of processes
ΔE_{th} = Q+W (6)


B. solve for T, we know p, V and n is constant



 N = 8 * 10^{26} atoms of air
 Power = 50 W
 Duration = 10 min
 (energy goes to air particles)
 p_{(power)}Δt_{(time)} = energy = ΔE_{th} (so this is neither of the 6 processes)
 ΔE_{th} = 3/2nR(T_{f}  T_{i}) *for monatomic gas
 air is mostly Nitrogen which is diatomic so:
 ΔE_{th} = 5/2nR(T_{f}  T_{i})
 pΔt = 5/2nRΔT = 5/2NK_{B}ΔT
 ΔT = 1.09 C



Define energy reservoir
Energy reservoir: an object or part of the environment whose temperature does not noticeably change when heat is transferred between the system and itself

Differentiate between a hot and cold reservoir
as well as Q_{H} and Q_{C} (what do the Qs have in common?)

Heat is never spontaneously transferred from a _____ object to a ______ object
 colder
 hotter

A heat engine is a device that is able to take energy from a _____ reservoir, transform some into useful _____, and deposit the rest as ______ energy in a ______ reservoir.
 hot
 work
 thermal energy
 cold

Label the heat engine
Assume there is no net energy transfer into or out of the heat engine. Thus,
Q _{H} = ____ + _____
All quantities are ______
 Q_{H} = Q_{C} + W_{out}
 positive

What is the efficiency formula for a heat engine (3)

Q_{H} is what you had to pay (why?)
No heat engine can operate without exhausting some fraction of the heat into a _____ _______. It is a fundamental law of matter.
What is the formula for maximum efficiency (or ______ efficiency) of any heat engine
What is the units for temperature
 because this is the energy of the fuel burned
 cold reservoir
 Carnot efficiency

 e_{max} = 1  (T_{C}/T_{H})
 A. e_{max} = 1  (303.15/573.15) = .47108
 B. e_{max} = 1  (303.15/523.15) = .4205
 C. e_{max} = 1  (293.15/473.15) = .3804
 D. e_{max} = 1  (283.15/373.15) = .2412
 E. e_{max} = 1  (273.15/363.15) = .2478
 ans = A.

 e_{max} = 1  (T_{C}/T_{H})
 e_{max} = 1  (288.15/513.15) = .4385

What is the job of a heat pump?
Since it is a process against the natural direction, what happens to the system?
Thus, Q_{H} = ?
All quantities are ______
 To transfer heat energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir
 work is done to the system
 Q_{H} = Q_{C} + W_{in}
 positive

Label the heat pump

You can use the heat pump for cooling, e.g. a ________. The ________ _____ _________ (____) is a quantity similar to the efficiency of the heat engine.
 refrigerator
 Coefficient of Performance (COP)

State the formula for COP (3) and Maximum COP of a heat pump used for cooling
What units must temperature be in?

You can use the heat pump for heating, state an example
State the formula for both COP (3) and the formula for Maximum COP of a heat pump used for HEATING
State the units for temperature
 warming a winter cabin

Larger COP means a more _______ heat pump! Unlike the efficiency of heat engine (e<1), COP of heat pump can be _______ than 1

 COP = Q_{c}/W_{in}
 COP_{max} = T_{C}/(T_{H}T_{C})
 B. 1 & 4

Label the heat engine (11story)
**The available arrows are just hints and not all of the actual arrows

State 4 important characteristics of this heat engine
(previous card)


Define entropy
Natural processes tend to move toward a state of _______ ________. Only _______ energy has entropy
 Entropy: a measure of the order or disorder of a system
 greater disorder
 thermal energy

The ordered, organized motion of the baseball (macroscopic _______ energy) has _____ entropy, while the disorganized random motion of the gas atoms (_______ energy) in a balloon has _____ entropy.
Statewise: Entropy of _____ < Entropy of ______ < Entropy of ______
 kinetic
 low
 thermal
 high
 Entropy of solid < Entropy of liquid < Entropy of gases

For a baseball and a balloon, state the the direction and speed of motion of the molecules, the type of motion, and the type of energy

