
What are the 3 Phases of Matter (clarify volume, shape and mobility of particles for each)
 Gas: unconfined, has neither a definite volume nor shape. Each particle moves freely through space
 Liquid: has a definite volume but not a definite shape. Weak bonds permit motion while keeping the particles close together
 Solid: has a definite volume and shape. It consists of atoms connected by spring like molecular bonds

In gas, the particles are in _______ motion and interact only through ______ _______.
In a liquid, the particles have _____ bonds that keep them close together. The particles can slide around each other, so the liquid can flow.
In a rigid solid, the particles are connected by relatively ______ ______like bonds
 random motion
 elastic collisions
 weak
 stiff springlike bonds

Atomic mass number A:
A = number of _____ + number of _______
Atomic mass scale: defines the mass of ^{12}C to be exactly ____u
Atomic mass unit u:
1u = __________
Avogradro's Number N_{A}:
The number of basic particles per mole of substance
N_{A} = __________
 A = number of protons + number of neutrons
 12u
 1u = 1.66*10^{27}kg
 N_{A} = 6.02*10^{23}mol^{1}


Define Molar mass of a substance
Molar mass of a substance, M_{mol}: the mass in grams of 1 mol of substance

What are two ways for finding the number of moles in a substance n:

Define Volume
Volume: the amount of space the system occupies

 3) O2 n = 120/32 = 30/8 = 15/4
 1) He n = 20/4 =5
 D.

Three characteristics of an Ideal gas model

The average translational kinetic energy of the molecules in an ideal gas is _______ proportional to the temperature of the gas. State the formula K_{avg}
 directly proportional
 Average translational kinetic energy

The thermal energy of an ideal gas consisting of N atoms is the sum of the _______ _______ of the individual atoms.
State the formula for the thermal energy for an Ideal Gas and change in thermal energy of an ideal gas
 kinetic energies

Define Gas pressure and state the formula
 Gas pressure is defined as the forcetoarea ratio

Gas pressure is a property of the _____ itself, independent of the _______.
State the SI unit for pressure and its conversion factor
 gas
 surface
 pascal (Pa)

Each collision exerts a _____ on the wall. The _____ _______ due to all the collisions causes the gas to have a pressure. The force of any one collision is incredibly _____, but the number of collisions each second is exceedingly ______, so the pressure can be ________
 force
 net force
 small
 large
 considerable

Increasing the temperature of the gas means the particles move at ______ speeds. They hit the walls more often and with more force, so there is more _______. In other words, _______ is proportional to ______
 higher speeds
 pressure
 Pressure to temperature (of the gas) (p ☛ T)

Decreasing the volume of the container means more frequent _______ with the walls of the container and thus more _______. In other words, pressure should be ______ ______ to the volume of the container
 collisions
 pressure
 inversely proportional (p ☛ 1/V)

Increasing the number of particles in the container means _____ frequent collisions with the walls of the container, and thus _____ pressure. What is the proportionality?
 more
 more
 Pressure is proportional to number of gas particles (p ☛ N)

State the three Ideal gas laws
 Law I: pressure is directly proportional to temperature (p ☛ T)
 Law II: pressure is inversely proportional to volume (p ☛ 1/V)
 Law III: pressure is directly proportional to the number of particles (p ☛ N)

The Ideal gas law is often expressed in terms of the total number of molecules, N, present in the sample.
State the formula (2) for pV in both Physics and Chemistry terms
State the gas constant (3)

For the other forms of gas law show what is constant in:
Boyle's law
Charles' law
GuyLussac's law

State the standard temperature (K & C) and pressure (atm, N/m^{2}, kPa) as well as the volume of (1 mole of) an ideal gas
 T = 273K (0°C)
 p = 1.00 atm = 1.013*10^{5} N/m^{2} = 101.3 kPa
 V (1 mol of an ideal gas) = 22.4 L

Ideal gas's temperature is always measured in _______ and p must be the absolute pressure in _______.
If the amount of gas does not change what equality can be stated:
 Kelvins
 Pascal



 Balloon D = 30cm & r = .15 m (SI unit)
 T = 63F = 290K
 n = m/M_{mol} = N/N_{A}
 p(1atm or 1.015*10^{5}Pa) V(sphere = 4/3πr^{3}) =n*R(constant) T(290K)
 n = .593 mol

For an ideal gas in a sealed container with a piston on top, n is _______. Knowing p and V, T can be calculated from the _____ _____ _____. Thus each point on a pV diagram specifies the ______ of the gas (p, V, T).
 constant
 idealgaslaw
 state
 *A process can be represented by a path on this diagram

Define Work
Work: the energy transferred between a system and the environment when a net force acts on the system over a distance

The sign of the work is neither just an arbitrary convention, nor does it have anything to do with the choice of coordinate system. The sign of the work tells us which way energy is being ________.
Work done by environment = ____________
W is the work done on system by the _________
 transferred
 (Work done by system)
 environment

When is work > 0 and when is it < 0
 W > 0: energy is entering the system, system's energy increases
 W < 0: energy is leaving the system, system's energy decreases

The ______ work done by a gas equals the area under the ____ curve, evaluated between the ______ and _____ states.
 mechanical
 PV curve
 initial and final states

W_{gas} = ?
For an ________ gas, V_{f} > V_{i}, the gas does ______ work
W_{environ} = ?
For a _______ gas, V_{f} < V_{i}, the gas does _______ work

Several processes can change the temperature of an ideal gas. Since ΔT is the same for each process, ____ is also the same. The heat is different for the different paths (explain).
Label the diagram
 ΔE_{th}
 The heat associated with a particular change in temperature is not unique

We define specific heats for two processes that frequently occur:
Changes with ______ ______
Changes with ______ ______
 constant pressure
 constant volume

Using the number of moles, n, we can define molar specific heats for these processes:
State the formula for constant volume and pressure (processes):

___ work is done in an isovolumetric process (w = __). Internal energy is a state function (explain).
 NO work is done
 w = 0
 Does not depend on the path followed

What is the formula for change in internal energy for all monoatomic gases. What two other iterations of this formula come into play when you take the First Law into account. All the added energy goes into increasing the __________ ________ ________ of the atoms, thus C_{V} = ? =?
 translational kinetic energy


State the formula for molar specific heats at both constant volume and constant pressure
Work done on the gas in an isobaric process, W = _____.
Internal energy is a state function (explain)
 Q = nC_{V}ΔT (constant volume)
 Q = nC_{P}ΔT (constant pressure)
 W = pΔV
 Does not depend on the path

What is the change in internal energy (4)
Using ideal gas law:
nC_{V}ΔT = _______ minus _______
C_{P}  C_{V} = ___
This expression applies to any ____ ____
 ideal gas

 Cp = Cv +R = 5/2R (monatomic)
 constant pressure takes up more energy (Q)than constant volume
 3 degrees of freedom: x,y,z
 Each degree of freedom is 1/2KBT
 For diatomic = 5/2R = CV
 For triatomic = 7/2R = CV

A system could exchange energy with the environment through two different means, ______ and _____. When energy has been transferred as a result of a temperature difference, we call this energy _____ (Define).
 work and heat
 heat
 Heat: energy transferred between two objects at different temperatures

Heat always flows _______ in the sense that energy is transferred from a ______ object to a ______ object

When an ideal gas in a sealed container with a piston on top, typically KE = ____ = ____, the only form of energy present is thermal energy.
Therefore, E _{internal} = _______ to indicate the total ______ energy of the system
 KE = PE = 0
 E_{internal} = E_{thermal}
 total internal energy

For systems in which only the ______ energy changes, the change in ______ energy is equal to the energy transferred into or out of the system as ______, ______ or _____: (State as equation)
 thermal energy
 thermal energy
 work W, heat Q, or both
 ΔE_{th} = Q + W

W is the work done by environment to system:
W > 0: energy is _____ the system
W < 0: energy is _____ the system
Q is the heat transferred from environment to system:
Q > 0: heat is ______ in the system
Q < 0: heat is ______ in the system
 entering
 leaving
 increased
 decreased


For processes in which no heat is exchanged between the gas and the environment, (Q=0):
1) For an ________ gas, V_{f} > V_{i}, ______ < 0, thus ΔE_{th} < 0, gases _____ _____
2) For a compressed gas, V_{f} < V_{i}, ______ > 0, thus ΔE_{th} > 0, gases _____ _____
This is the principle behind how a steam engine, refrigerator, and air conditioner work
 expanding gas
 W_{environ} < 0
 gases cool down
 compressed gas
 W_{environ} > 0
 gases warm up

Name the 6 different Ideal Gas Processes (clarify any involving constants)
 Isobaric Process  constant pressure
 Isochoric Process  constant volume
 Isothermal Process  constant temperature
 Adiabatic Process
 Free Expansion Process
 Cyclic Process

