How to calculate crude birth rate?
Birth rate / population size x 1000
How to calculate total fertility rate?
- Is the average number of births per woman of childbearing age.
- Fertility rate below 2 is population decrease
- Fertility rate above 2 is population increase
Factors influencing fertility rates?
- Level of education (the level of education of the parents has a negative correlation with the family size)
- Material ambition (middle class families have the smallest families for material ambition, lower class families who depend on workforce tend to have large families)
- Political factors (family planning and birth control)
- Economic prosperity
- Infant mortality rates (when they’re high, families tend to be larger for child replacement)
How to calculate crude death rates?
- Number of deaths / population size x 1000
- However, crude death rates are misleading. MEDCs have an older population and hence a higher death rate. Thus, to compare death rates, we use age-specific death rates like the infant mortality rate.
What causes variations in mortality rates?
- Age structure (older populations have higher death rates)
- Social class (poorer populations have higher death rates)
- Occupation (hazardous occupations have higher death rates)
- Place of residence (inner cities have higher death rates due to overcrowding, pollution and stress. Rural areas with limited access to education, sanitation and health care also have higher death rates)
Explain IMR and child mortality rates?
- One of the most sensitive measurements of development
- Infant deaths are often preventable
- It’s only high in poor countries
- Low when there is adequate nutrition, sanitation and health care
How do we calculate NIR?
CDR-CBR : 10
Explain doubling time?
- Number of years needed for a population to double in size calculated by
Explain the effect of population size increase on Earth?
Sustainable agricultural, water and energy systems are not developing fast enough to sustain the increasing population size. Without accurate models, we are not able to project the amount of resources that will be needed.
Explain the Demographic Transition Model
- Shows the change in population structure from LEDCs to MEDCs
- The pyramid gets less concave, more convex and turns into ari kovani shape
- DTM isn’t always accurate (former Yugoslavia, Ireland)
Explain DTM Stage 1
- High and variable, birth rates and death rates fluctuate but are both high
- Population growth fluctuates
- No countries are currently at this stage (only indigenous tribes)
Reasons for high birth rates?
- Family name and prestige
- Lack of social security, to look after them when they get old
- Lack of birth control, family planning
- For labour
- High IMR (child replacement)
Reasons for high death rates?
- Lack of sanitation
- Older population
- Contagious disease
- Lack of access to clean water
Explain DTM Stage 2
- Birth rates remain high but death rates fall rapidly with access to sanitation and healthcare services (access to vaccination) and agricultural revolution
- Population growth is rapid
Explain DTM Stage 3
- Birth rates fall (family planning, birth control, material desires, emancipation of women) as death rates continue to fall (less rapidly)
- Population growth rate decreases but the population continues to grow
Explain DTM Stage 4
- Birth rates, death rates and population size fluctuate (but remain at equilibrium)
- Most developed countries are at this state
Explain DTM Stage 5
- Death rates are higher than birth rates
- Population size decreases
- Sweden, Japan
National and international development policies have an effect on population dynamics
Pro-natalist approach endorses population growth whereas anti-natalist approach endorses decrease in population growth rates
Criticisms to the Demographic transition model?
- Failed states, model is based on a few european countries
- Birth rates may remain high due to cultural and societal reasons regardless of the development and economic prosperity level of the country (arab states)
Explain China as a case study
- Extremely fast population growth after the establishment of the PRC in 1949
- Soft population control policies implemented until the great famine (1961)
- Postponed births lead to population boom after the end of the great famine (further rural poverty)
- One child policy was introduced in 1979 (in rural areas, forced abortion and sterilization. In more developed areas, forced to pay taxes and are unable to come to high positions within their jobs) softened in 1999
- This has led to gender imbalance due to selective abortion (chinese government takes action to promote girls)
- In 2013, the two child policy was introduced to combat the ageing population and the decrease in workforce. However, due to the situation of the country and major wealth distribution imbalance, families of higher socioeconomic status continue to be able to have more than one child
The effect of Millenium Development Goals on population growth?
- Reduces Infant mortality rates
- Promote gender equality and education
Ecocentric perspective on population growth
- Role of education
- Less materialistic society
- Population growth is a bad thing
- Would promote the education of women and self restraint
Anthropocentric perspective on population growth
- Use of regulation and legislation
- Promotion of international collaboration
Technocentric perspective on population growth
- Contraceptives and technological advancements promoted
- Population growth considered necessary for economic development
- Promotion of resource management to handle population size growth
Resources are described as natural capital
What is renewable natural capital?
Natural capital that can produce natural income indefinitely in the form of goods and services
What are goods and services?
- Goods: marketable commodities such as timber or grain
- Services: flood and erosion prevention, climate stabilization
What is non-renewable natural capital?
Capital that can’t be replaced or can only be replaced in a geological period of time. (minerals, fossil fuel)
What is sustainability?
- Using global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and assimilation of pollution and does not diminish the ability of future generations to use the said resource
- Extracting renewable resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration shows sustainability
Explain the unsustainable use of water and its effects
- Pollution and runoffs from agricultural practices and factories pollutes water and reduces its quality. The lowering of water tables due to unsustainable extraction of groundwater causes the contamination of the source by saltwater. (Gaza strip)
- This leads to decreased agricultural yields and conflicts (israeli-palestinian conflict)
What are the types of ecosystem services?
- Supporting services: (essentials for life) primary productivity, soil formation and nutrient cycling
- Regulating services: climate and hazard regulation, pollination, water quality regulation,
- Provisioning services: Goods obtained from the ecosystem (managed ecosystems) food, fibre, fuel
- Cultural services: parks, outdoor recreation
What are the ways to measure the value of a resource?
- The cost of replacing it with something else
- The cost of mitigating its loss
- Its market value
Explain the dynamic nature of resources?
- As society and technology advances, the value of resources may change
- Uranium was useless before the nuclear age, now it’s extremely valuable
- Cork was useful, now it’s useless
- The value of the resource may also differ geographically
General summary of the subchapter:
- The waste produced has been steadily increasing and has become more non-biodegradable. MEDCs produce more waste than LEDCs. Waste production increases during festive seasons.
- 40% of the world doesn’t have access to safe waste disposal. Most of the waste is stored in large-scale dumps, which pose health (respiratory diseases, skin conditions, infections) and environmental dangers (pollution).
- E-waste increases with technological advancements and poses health and environment risks. Recycling is important, as the precious metals used in the assembly of the electronics is a non-renewable source.
What is the problem with plastic?
- Production releases pollutants
- Non-biodegradable which leads to the formation of dumps
- Mistaken for food
- Made from fossil fuels
What are some of the disposal methods for solid domestic waste?
- Recycling: Recycling plastic reduces CO2, SO and NO released during production and reduces water use by 90% However, it’s more costly than dumps and requires public education. Not every country has the proper facilities for recycling
- Composting: Returns valuable nutrients to the soil. However, requires public education
- Landfills: Cheaper. However, poses health and environmental dangers (GHGs, contamination through leaching, not sustainable as landfill areas run out).
- Incineration: Disposal of hazardous waste and generation of electricity. However, releases greenhouse gases.
What are waste management strategies influenced by?
- International agreements
- Policies of the country
- Technological stance of country
- Education level of population
- Involvement of NGOs
- Economic Considerations
What are waste management strategies?
- Altering Human Activity:
- Reduce packaging
- Compost organic matter
- Recycle Goods
- Reuse goods to extend their lifespan
- 2) Controlling Release of Pollutant
- Legislate and educate for waste separation
- Tax disposable items
- 3) Clean-up and Restoration of Damaged Systems
- Collect plastics
- Reclaim landfills
- Incinerate SDW for energy
What is carrying capacity?
Maximum population size that can be sustainable supported by a given area.
What is optimum population?
- The optimum number of people, who, when using all the available resources, will produce the highest GDP per capita in return.
- Highest standard of living. Increase (disease, overcrowding, underemployment, famine) or decrease will lead to lower standards of living
Why is it hard to determine human carrying capacity?
Dynamic nature of lifestyles, resources and technological advancements
What is population ceiling?
When the size of the population is equal to the carrying capacity of the given area
How to calculate standard of living?
Resources x technology / population
- Expressed that while agricultural advancements are linear, population growth is exponential
- Promoted population growth checks
- Preventive (abstinence)
- Positive (famine, war, disease)
- Assumed a closed system of human population
- Does not take wealth imbalances into account
- Could not predict exponential advancements in technology and paradigm shifts
- Could not predict the globalisation of food supplies
- Population growth fuels technological advancements (increase in food supply shows paradigm shifts and does not grow exponentially (green revolution in the 60s)
- Assumes a closed system
- Does not take into account permanent damages to ecosystem due to mismanagement
- In LEDCs, food shortages lead to emigration rather than technological advancements
- Innovation does occur in MEDCs, but not LEDCs
What is ecological footprint?
Hypothetical area of land required by society to fulfill all of their resource needs and assimilate all wastes (increased by high energy use, imported goods, decreased by recycling, local production, improving technology to increase carrying capacity) High ecological footprint implies unsustainable use of resources. Thus, it must be reduced.