ESS Chapter 8

 How to calculate crude birth rate? Birth rate / population size x 1000 How to calculate total fertility rate? Is the average number of births per woman of childbearing age. Fertility rate below 2 is population decreaseFertility rate above 2 is population increase Factors influencing fertility rates? Level of education (the level of education of the parents has a negative correlation with the family size)Material ambition (middle class families have the smallest families for material ambition, lower class families who depend on workforce tend to have large families) Political factors (family planning and birth control) Economic prosperity Infant mortality rates (when they’re high, families tend to be larger for child replacement) How to calculate crude death rates? Number of deaths / population size x 1000 However, crude death rates are misleading. MEDCs have an older population and hence a higher death rate. Thus, to compare death rates, we use age-specific death rates like the infant mortality rate. What causes variations in mortality rates? Age structure (older populations have higher death rates)Social class (poorer populations have higher death rates) Occupation (hazardous occupations have higher death rates)Place of residence (inner cities have higher death rates due to overcrowding, pollution and stress. Rural areas with limited access to education, sanitation and health care also have higher death rates) Explain IMR and child mortality rates? One of the most sensitive measurements of development Infant deaths are often preventable It’s only high in poor countriesLow when there is adequate nutrition, sanitation and health care How do we calculate NIR? CDR-CBR : 10 Explain doubling time? Number of years needed for a population to double in size calculated by 70/NIR Explain the effect of population size increase on Earth? Sustainable agricultural, water and energy systems are not developing fast enough to sustain the increasing population size. Without accurate models, we are not able to project the amount of resources that will be needed. Explain the Demographic Transition Model Shows the change in population structure from LEDCs to MEDCsThe pyramid gets less concave, more convex and turns into ari kovani shape DTM isn’t always accurate (former Yugoslavia, Ireland) Explain DTM Stage 1 High and variable, birth rates and death rates fluctuate but are both high Population growth fluctuatesNo countries are currently at this stage (only indigenous tribes) Reasons for high birth rates? Family name and prestigeLack of social security, to look after them when they get oldLack of birth control, family planningFor labour High IMR (child replacement) Reasons for high death rates? PovertyLack of sanitationPollutionOvercrowdingOlder population Contagious disease Lack of access to clean water Explain DTM Stage 2 Birth rates remain high but death rates fall rapidly with access to sanitation and healthcare services (access to vaccination) and agricultural revolutionPopulation growth is rapid Explain DTM Stage 3 Birth rates fall (family planning, birth control, material desires, emancipation of women) as death rates continue to fall (less rapidly)Population growth rate decreases but the population continues to grow Explain DTM Stage 4 Birth rates, death rates and population size fluctuate (but remain at equilibrium)Most developed countries are at this state Explain DTM Stage 5 Death rates are higher than birth ratesPopulation size decreasesSweden, Japan National and international development policies have an effect on population dynamics Pro-natalist approach endorses population growth whereas anti-natalist approach endorses decrease in population growth rates Criticisms to the Demographic transition model? Failed states, model is based on a few european countriesBirth rates may remain high due to cultural and societal reasons regardless of the development and economic prosperity level of the country (arab states) Explain China as a case study Extremely fast population growth after the establishment of the PRC in 1949Soft population control policies implemented until the great famine (1961)Postponed births lead to population boom after the end of the great famine (further rural poverty)One child policy was introduced in 1979 (in rural areas, forced abortion and sterilization. In more developed areas, forced to pay taxes and are unable to come to high positions within their jobs) softened in 1999This has led to gender imbalance due to selective abortion (chinese government takes action to promote girls) In 2013, the two child policy was introduced to combat the ageing population and the decrease in workforce. However, due to the situation of the country and major wealth distribution imbalance, families of higher socioeconomic status continue to be able to have more than one child The effect of Millenium Development Goals on population growth? Reduces Infant mortality ratesPromote gender equality and education Ecocentric perspective on population growth Role of educationLess materialistic societyPopulation growth is a bad thingWould promote the education of women and self restraint Anthropocentric perspective on population growth Use of regulation and legislation Promotion of international collaboration Technocentric perspective on population growth Contraceptives and technological advancements promoted Population growth considered necessary for economic development Promotion of resource management to handle population size growth Resources are described as natural capital What is renewable natural capital? Natural capital that can produce natural income indefinitely in the form of goods and services What are goods and services? Goods: marketable commodities such as timber or grain Services: flood and erosion prevention, climate stabilization What is non-renewable natural capital? Capital that can’t be replaced or can only be replaced in a geological period of time. (minerals, fossil fuel) What is sustainability? Using global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and assimilation of pollution and does not diminish the ability of future generations to use the said resourceExtracting renewable resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration shows sustainability Explain the unsustainable use of water and its effects Pollution and runoffs from agricultural practices and factories pollutes water and reduces its quality. The lowering of water tables due to unsustainable extraction of groundwater causes the contamination of the source by saltwater. (Gaza strip)This leads to decreased agricultural yields and conflicts (israeli-palestinian conflict) What are the types of ecosystem services? Supporting services: (essentials for life) primary productivity, soil formation and nutrient cycling Regulating services: climate and hazard regulation, pollination, water quality regulation, Provisioning services: Goods obtained from the ecosystem (managed ecosystems) food, fibre, fuel Cultural services: parks, outdoor recreation What are the ways to measure the value of a resource? The cost of replacing it with something elseThe cost of mitigating its lossIts market value Explain the dynamic nature of resources? As society and technology advances, the value of resources may changeUranium was useless before the nuclear age, now it’s extremely valuableCork was useful, now it’s uselessThe value of the resource may also differ geographically General summary of the subchapter: The waste produced has been steadily increasing and has become more non-biodegradable. MEDCs produce more waste than LEDCs. Waste production increases during festive seasons. 40% of the world doesn’t have access to safe waste disposal. Most of the waste is stored in large-scale dumps, which pose health (respiratory diseases, skin conditions, infections) and environmental dangers (pollution). E-waste increases with technological advancements and poses health and environment risks. Recycling is important, as the precious metals used in the assembly of the electronics is a non-renewable source. What is the problem with plastic? Production releases pollutantsNon-biodegradable which leads to the formation of dumpsMistaken for food Made from fossil fuels What are some of the disposal methods for solid domestic waste? Recycling: Recycling plastic reduces CO2, SO and NO released during production and reduces water use by 90% However, it’s more costly than dumps and requires public education. Not every country has the proper facilities for recyclingComposting: Returns valuable nutrients to the soil. However, requires public education Landfills: Cheaper. However, poses health and environmental dangers (GHGs, contamination through leaching, not sustainable as landfill areas run out).Incineration: Disposal of hazardous waste and generation of electricity. However, releases greenhouse gases. What are waste management strategies influenced by? International agreementsPolicies of the countryTechnological stance of countryEducation level of population Involvement of NGOsEconomic Considerations What are waste management strategies? Altering Human Activity:Reduce packagingCompost organic matterRecycle GoodsReuse goods to extend their lifespan2) Controlling Release of Pollutant Legislate and educate for waste separation Tax disposable items 3) Clean-up and Restoration of Damaged SystemsCollect plasticsReclaim landfills Incinerate SDW for energy What is carrying capacity? Maximum population size that can be sustainable supported by a given area. What is optimum population? The optimum number of people, who, when using all the available resources, will produce the highest GDP per capita in return. Highest standard of living. Increase (disease, overcrowding, underemployment, famine) or decrease will lead to lower standards of living Why is it hard to determine human carrying capacity? Dynamic nature of lifestyles, resources and technological advancements What is population ceiling? When the size of the population is equal to the carrying capacity of the given area How to calculate standard of living? Resources x technology / population Explain Malthus Expressed that while agricultural advancements are linear, population growth is exponentialPromoted population growth checksPreventive (abstinence)Positive (famine, war, disease)Problems: Assumed a closed system of human populationDoes not take wealth imbalances into accountCould not predict exponential advancements in technology and paradigm shiftsCould not predict the globalisation of food supplies Explain Boserup Population growth fuels technological advancements (increase in food supply shows paradigm shifts and does not grow exponentially (green revolution in the 60s)Problems:Assumes a closed systemDoes not take into account permanent damages to ecosystem due to mismanagement In LEDCs, food shortages lead to emigration rather than technological advancementsInnovation does occur in MEDCs, but not LEDCs What is ecological footprint? Hypothetical area of land required by society to fulfill all of their resource needs and assimilate all wastes (increased by high energy use, imported goods, decreased by recycling, local production, improving technology to increase carrying capacity) High ecological footprint implies unsustainable use of resources. Thus, it must be reduced. Authorpelinpoyraz ID344191 Card SetESS Chapter 8 Descriptionpopulation ve waste Updated2018-12-12T23:27:36Z Show Answers