Pathophysiology Final

  1. What is most important for seizers?
    Always time them
  2. What is ictus seizure?
    seizure that lasts about 1-3 mins
  3. What is status epilepticus?
    Greater than 5 mins of back-to-back seizers. This is a medical emergency.
  4. (3) Major predisposing factors for ischemic stroke?
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Carotid stenosis
    • Cerebral arteriosclerosis
  5. (3) Major predisposing factor for hemorrhagic stroke?
    • Hypertension
    • Oral anticoagulation
    • Cerebral aneurysm
  6. What is the first stage of a seizer?
  7. What is the seconds stage of a seizer? What's special about this stage.
    Aura. Does NOT happen with all types

    Only with Focal seizure or tonic-clonic types
  8. What is the third stage of a seizer?
    The ICTUS, which is the actual seizer
  9. What is the forth stage of a seizer?
    Post Ictus
  10. What is the prodromal stage?
    First stage of a seizer. Will have depression, anger, issues sleeping, anxiety, GI and urinary issues. Can start days before a seizer occurs.
  11. What is the Aura?
    Second stage of a FOCAL seizer. Altered vision or hearing, anxiety, sudden weird taste or smell, dizzy, inability to speak.

    Happens within seconds or mins that a seizer happens. Warning sign that a bigger seizer is expected.
  12. What is the ICTUS
    This is the actual seizer.
  13. What is post ictus?
    After the seizure. Recovery. May takee hours or days to recover.

    Very tired, confused, headache, injury
  14. What is a focal seizer?
    Affects a portion of the brain
  15. What is a generalized seizer? *
    • Whole brain. Tonic clonic (Grand-Mal) Will have aura phase.
    • Most common* 
    • Loss of consciousness. 
    • Tonic: body stiffening
    • Clonic: recurrent jerking, extremities 
    • IF excess 5 mins: status epilepticus, which is medical emergency.
  16. What is the 2nd generalized whole brain seizer?
    • Absence (petit-mal)
    • Most common in reds.
    • Staring (appears to be daydreaming) goes unnoticed. 
    • Very short. 
    • For the post ictus: won't remember event
  17. Atonic seizer
    • without muscle tone, goes limp, falls(when standing) slump (when sitting)
    • Not aware during event. Post ictus: recover is immediate once they regain consciousness.
  18. Focal onset aware seizer?
    Simple partial: Patient aware. Aura. <2mins
  19. Focal Impaired awareness
    Complex partial. Unaware of motor symptoms.
  20. Uhthoff's sign?
    Neurological test that is positive when patient cannot tolerate heat. + in Multiple sclerosis
  21. What is normal ICP (intracranial pressure)
    5-15 mmHg
  22. How much ICP is a means patient needs treatment?
    >20 mmHg
  23. What is the Normal CPP (Cerebral Perfusion Pressure) ?
    60-100 mmHg
  24. How to calculate CPP? Whats the formula? What do you need?
    • Need the BP and ICP.
    • Take the diastolic BP and multiple by 2. Then divide by 3. Then subtract the ICP. 
    • = CPP
  25. Formula to determine MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure)
    (systolic * .333333) + (diastolic * .666666)
Card Set
Pathophysiology Final
Queens University of Charlotte Patho Final Review