History and Systems Final

  1. Psychoanalysis:  Joseph Breuer
    • Mentor/father figure to Freud
    • Worked with Anna O. using hypnosis but found working without hypnosis worked better
    • invented the talking cure
    • first psychotherapy case
  2. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud
    • Trained as a physician
    • treated anxiety attacks, melancholy and hysterical ailments
    • created free association
    • introduced the term psychoanalysis
    • first to put forth a coherent theory of unconsciousness
  3. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud - structural model and topographical model
    • Structural model - model of personality consisting of the id, ego, and superego
    • topographical model - model of the mind consisting of the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
  4. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud - structural model - the Id
    • most primitive and least accessible part of personality
    • harbors sexual and aggressive instincts
    • contains the libido
    • pursues instant gratification with little regard for the constraints of the environment
    • operates on the pleasure principle - pursue pleasure and avoid pain
    • at birth people are all Id
    • characterized by primary process - image based thinking  of instant wish-fulfillment in the absence of real world gratification
  5. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud - structural model - Ego
    • negotiates between the demands of the id and the limitations of the external world
    • embodies rationality and pragmatism
    • operates on the reality principle - postponing gratification until there is an appropriate and safe object through which the tension can be alleviated
    • characterized by secondary process thinking - practical and realistic thinking
  6. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud - structural model - Superego
    • Internalized parental voice
    • formed early in childhood
    • learns to administer internal rewards and punishments
    • guilt is its form of punishment
    • encompasses perfectionism, morality, conscience, and operating within the rules
    • constant conflict with the Id
    • seeks to deny gratification completely
  7. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud - defense mechanisms
    • unconscious distortions of the exterior reality, used by the ego to alleviate anxiety
    • most basic is repression - forces anxiety into the unconscious
    • sublimation is more advanced
    • reliance on primitive defense mechanisms in later life is partly responsible for the development of neurosis
  8. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud - life and death instincts
    • life instincts = eros - deal with survival, reproduction and pleasure
    • death instincts = thanatos - reflections of an unconscious desire to cease to exist as a conscious entity and are the least popular/influential of Freud's constructs
  9. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud - free association
    • saying whatever comes into your mind as soon as it occurs to reveal the hidden contents of the unconscious
    • symbolic in nature
    • superego was not able to recognize the material in symbolic form and so did not censor it
  10. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud - Dream interpretation
    • manifest content - literal images of the dream
    • latent content - unconscious wishes, thoughts, and feelings that give rise to specific manifest content
  11. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud - Transference
    • displacing feelings about key people in their lives onto a therapist
    • an obstacle to treat (not anymore)
    • able to provide some insight
  12. Psychoanalysis: Alfred Adler
    • first follow of Freud to break from him
    • created individual psychology
    • believed humans were motivated by concern for social and personal power not sexuality
    • primary personality constructs were creative self and style of self 
    • developed inferiority complexes and compensation - behaviors with overcorrect weakness
  13. Psychoanalysis: Carl Gustav Jung
    • another follower to break from Freud
    • Also objected to the importance of sexuality
    • had a more complicated structure for conscious and unconscious
    • mind exists of the ego - self observing part of the conscious and is regarded as being the while of a person's personality
    • and persona - how you present yourself to the world and interacts exclusively with the outside world
    • four basic functions of consciousness - thinking, feelings, sensation, and intuition

    divided the unconscious into two parts

    • personal - contains memories and repressed material form one's own life experiences primarily from early life. where complexes exist
    • collective - contains instinctual wisdom of the human species perceived as archetypes

    • believed imbalance between conscious and unconscious elements of personality impact daily living and creates psychopathology
    • individuation - the complete and independent development of each aspect of the psyche
  14. Psychoanalysis: Anna Freud
    • taxonomy of Freudian defense mechanisms are part of her work
    • formed the initial basis of ego psychology - working with the client through the ego and interpreting their use of defenses and enriched the concept of counter transference
  15. Psychoanalysis: Melanie Klein
    • wholeheartedly adopted Freud's theory of death instincts
    • worked mostly with children
    • rejected the Freuds idea of the newborn infant as undifferentiated Id, rather she believed that infants strive for relationships with significant others
    • saw fantasy as an inherent and fundamental process
    • believed there were two positions which appear first in infancy but continue to inform interpretations throughout life

    paranoid-schizoid position - an infants first means of processing dichotomous experiences of the external world. contains part objects - a single physical or psychological part of a person (a breast) which can be good and bad (good when it gives milk, bad when it does not)

    The depressive position - children develop the capacity to form whole objects which are more realistic representations of people.  children typically vacillate between the two positions before the depressive position becomes dominant
  16. Object Relations Theory
    • began as a modification of Freudian theory, shifting the emphasis in psychology to innate drives to relationships
    • foundation is a belief in a system of internal relationships with mental representations of others "objects"
  17. Object relations - W.R.D. (Ronald) Fairbairn
    • produced the first true object relations model of personality, where the self is totally formed material taken from others
    • rejected the influence of biological drives
    • believed the ego is object seeking  and always working towards relationships
    • believed infants where born psychologically whole
    • believed psychopathology to be the direct or indirect product of internalized bad objects
    • ego was split into three aspects, central ego (related to people and the external world), libidinal ego (loving and grows in response to good experiences and others), and anti-libidinal ego (formed out of bad object experiences and functions like the superego) called the endopsychic situation
  18. Object Relations - D.W. Winnicott
    • emphasized the importance of the early environment and mothering in creation of the self
    • holding environment - adapting itself to the needs of the infant and enacted by mother
    • primary maternal preoccupation - subsume own needs totally in serving the needs of the infant
    • good enough mother - the mother provided holding environment - through which the infant develops a narcissistic omnipotence 
    • concept of true self - allows person to feel real, whole, spontaneous and genuine in relationships 
    • concept of false self - lack sense of reality and unable to be genuine 
    • transitional object - means to the smooth passage from subjective omnipotence to object perception
  19. Self Psychology: Heinz Kohut
    • theory grew from work with narcissistic personalities 
    • narcissism is a normal component of personality and too much was the result of severe trauma during childhood
  20. Gestalt Psychology: Max Wertheimer
    • Responsible for the birth of Gestalt Psychology
    • experiment involved the perception of moving lights 
    • thought the perceptual field was organized according to certain rules 

    • Proximity - close together in time or space appear to belong together and perceived together
    • Closure - tendency in perception to complete incomplete figures 
    • Figure/Ground - tendency to organize perceptions into which object is focused on and a background against which it appears.
  21. Gestalt Psychology: Wolfgang Kohler
    • did animal studies of perceptual organization 
    • believed learning is primarily insight based
  22. Humanistic/Existential Psychology
    • Existential - encompasses several philosophical systems that emphasize individual freedom and independence and the freedom of choice
    • Humanism - emphasize personal worth of the individual and their capacity to overcome hardship
    • popular in the 1960's
    • declared the "third force"
    • emphasized the holistic nature of the human consciousness
  23. Abraham Maslow
    • Self-actualization
    • human's greatest need is to actively use all of their qualities and abilities for personal development 
    • hierarchy of needs 
    • broken down by basic needs 1-3 and metaneeds 4-5
  24. Person Centered Psychotherapy:  Carl Rogers
    • mind was referred to as the organism 
    • sensory experience = phenomenal field 
    • ideas of self = one's understanding of himself 
    • congruence = organism in harmony with self = real self 
    • conditions of worth = criteria to meet to get positive regard 
    • incongruence = self becomes distorted = ideal self (unrealistic vision of one's self) 
    • two defenses = denial and perceptual distortion (makea threatening situation less threatening)
    • unconditional positive regard = positive regard to matter what 
    • therapy is completely non-directive
  25. Existential Psychotherapy
    • comes from Maslow, Yalom, and Rollo May
    • positive feedback is not whats needed for clients 
    • all about the choices people make 
    • facilitate resilience and hardiness in clients 
    • experiences of self, other, and world
  26. Gestalt Therapy:  Fritz Perls
    • each person is capable of assuming full personal responsibility for their thoughts, feelings, and actions
    • living as an integrated whole 
    • introduced closure 
    • focuses on shoulds and the present moment 
    • personality is divided into the self ( tendency towards self-actualization) and the self-image (pleasing others)
    • focus on process rather than content and uses confrontation and role play
  27. Logotherapy:  Viktor Frankl
    • developed out of his experience in a concentration camp
    • about finding meaning in experience 
    • pathology comes from the existential vacuum (a hole left when meaning is absent)
    • belief in a total freedom of choice 
    • saw guilt in more positive terms as a responsibility for ones life
  28. Postmodernism:  Jacques Derrida
    • used "text" to describe all cultural artifacts 
    • proposed that by deconstructing texts one could discover important meanings which have been excluded 
    • all about construction and deconstruction 
    • rejects the scientific method
    • claims to embrace diversity and "otherness"
  29. Postmodernism: Kenneth Gergen
    • founded social constructionism
    • human knowledge and awareness are the product of social processes 
    • emphasize a non-expert stance
  30. Postmodernism: Narrative Therapy
    • Created by Michael White 
    • stories are the primary unit of meaning in human interaction and thought 
    • help clients to re-author their stories
  31. Ethnocentric Psychology
    • racial groups needs a psychology by and for its own people 
    • Afrocentrism was created by Leopold Senghor
    • alternative taxonomy for personality disorders
  32. Feminist Psychology
    • Began in the 1960s
    • principle that the personal is political 
    • concerned with the biases of seeing women as more psychologically unhealthy
    • acknowledge the power differential in the therapy room
    • promote power with rather than power over
    • avoid diagnoses and labels 
    • necessity of social and political activism 
    • in the 1990's incorporated relational theory by Judith Jordan
Card Set
History and Systems Final
History and Systems Final