CDS 602 - Post Midterm 2 (Artic/Phono)

  1. Assessment Components of Artic and Phonological Processes
    • describe the artic/phonological development status of the client
    • determine if speech deviates enough from norms to warrant concern/investigation 
    • ID factors related to presence/maintenance of the disorder (known or unknown physical cause, secondary disorder, etc.)
  2. Purpose of Artic/Phono Assessment
    make prognostic judgments about change with(out) intervention Monitor changes over time
  3. Components of a Complete Eval
    • client history 
    • artic/phono assessment
    • OME
    • hearing assessment
    • language assessment
    • diagnosis
    • info reporting
  4. Procedures for Obtaining Case History
    • Written case history
    • interview
    • collab with other professionals
  5. Contributing Factors to Diagnosis
    • hearing impairment 
    • medical or neurological factors (dysarthria and apraxia)
    • dental problems
    • malnutrition 
    • motor development 
    • intelligence, sex, birth order, motivation and concern, dialect
  6. Dysarthria
    • motor speech disorder
    • damage to peripheral or central nervous system 
    • symptoms: paralysis, weakness, in-coordination of speech muscles 
    • all speech production systems are affected 
    • causes: cerebral palsy, ABI, degenerative disease, tumors, strokes
  7. Speech Sound Production Systems
    • phonation
    • articulation 
    • respiration 
    • resonance
  8. Dysarthria Speech Characteristics
    • monotonous pitch
    • deviant voice quality (devoicing)
    • variable speech rate
    • hyper-nasality

    • bilabial and velar sounds easiest 
    • stops, glides, and nasals easiest 

    **KEY FEATURE: reduced intelligibility and slurred speech
  9. Apraxia
    • motor programming disorder
    • damage to central nervous system
    • no muscle weakness or paralysis 
    • difficulty with precise movements needed for speech
  10. Apraxia Characteristics
    • groping behaviors 
    • poor intelligibility 
    • prolongation of speech sounds
    • repetition of sounds and syllables
    • most difficulty with consonant clusters (then fricatives, affricates, stops, and nasals)
    • difficulty with volitional, oral, nonspeech movements 
    • unusual errors including metathesis 

    **KEY FEATURE: inconsistent artic errors
  11. Metathesis
    error pattern where sounds in words are reversed 

    ex) desk said as "deks"
  12. Speech Sounds Assessment Procedures
    • screening
    • artic tests
    • speech sampling
    • stimulability of errors
  13. Analysis of Speech Production Errors
    • number of errors 
    • error types
    • form of errors
    • consistency of errors
    • intelligibility
    • rate of speech
    • prosody
  14. Speech and Gender
    boys more likely to have speech sound disorder
  15. Speech and Intelligence
    only associated with defective speech production when significantly below normal
  16. Speech and Birth Order/Siblings
    • first borns have better artic 
    • greater age difference = better artic for child #2
  17. Speech and SES
    • low SES doesn't cause disorder 
    • low SES has more artic errors than high/mid SES (access to treatment)
  18. Lang Development and Artic
    • phono disorders have greater risk for reading and writing trouble 
    • severe phono disorder more likely to have lang problems
  19. Auditory Discrimination Skills
    • inconclusive link to artic/phono disorders 
    • some with disordered speech score within normal limits, others don't
    • may aid improving artic skills
  20. Artic Screening
    • quickly ID who may have disorder
    • not in-depth assessment (few min. tops)
    • formal:written measure 
    • informal: picture to elicit sounds, reading passage, simple oral tasks
  21. Standardized Artic Test
    (+) ID artic errors in quick, systematic fashion

    (-) elicit phonemes in one context

    (-)  elicited at word level in IMF positions

    (-) only examine consonants 

    (-) don't predict if a sound may be outgrown

    (-) reliability questionable in disorders with variable sound production
  22. Evoked Speech Samples
    imitation (immediate or delayed-banana, this banana is yellow, what is this?)

    naming (what is this?)

    sentence completion (here is a yellow___)
  23. Simulability Assessment
    • client ability to imitate correct model of misarticulated sound 
    • model in isolation, nonsense syllables, and words 
    • debate on prognostic value 
    • may be initial goal of intervention
    • assessed through imitation, diff environments, key words, phonetic placement and shaping, or any combo)
Card Set
CDS 602 - Post Midterm 2 (Artic/Phono)
CDS 602