Final exam - early music

  1. Richard the Lionheart
    • was the king of england - spent little time in england and was always on crusade (was kept hostage)
    • son of eleanore of acquitaine
    • wrote ja nuns hons pris as a protest against his captivity
  2. Faburden
    • “english organum”
    • made of parallel thirds and sixths
    • 1- sing the tenor
    • 2- voice below starts and ends at a fifth but otherwise sings a third below the tenor
    • 3- upper voice sings the tenor but a fourth above
  3. Gimel (gymel)/ rondellus (round)/ Rota
    • old english techniques for compostion
    • gimel - splits a line of music into two more complex parts that eventually converge, EG - nobilis humilis
    • rondellus - a formalized interchange of parts according to some kind of plan, a round is one such example with the voices singing unison but offset by a given number of beats
    • rota - a form of a round
    • all various ways of saying a round
    • Sumer is icumen in is an example
  4. Old Hall MS
    • english manuscript
    • 147 compositoins - mostly mass and motet by composers who served the royals
    • biggest manuscript of english sacred music from the late 14th / early 15th century
    • helped scholars to better enderstand english musical traits, especially noticing a tendancy to focus on complexities like cannons during this time period
  5. Battle of Agincourt (1415)
    • english victory against france during the 100 years war
    • english invaded france after a failure of negotiations
    • significant because of the extensive use of the english longbow which secured the english victory, (cavalry declining while ranged warfare is increasing)
    • inspired the agincourt carol
  6. john dunstaple
    • most highly regarded english composer from the 15thc
    • composed in all polyphonic generes
    • highly influencial (also on french music as he spent part of his career in france)
  7. Johannes de Grocheo
    • wrote the treatise “De Musica”
    • french musical theorist
    • divides music into 3 categories which are essentially “popular music (music of the layperson)” “educated music (according to metrical rules)” and “music of the church”
    • differed from the commion boethiean tradition
  8. franco of cologne
    • german who went to paris to teach
    • wrote a treatise “ars cantus mensurabilis
    • -lists consonances and dissonances
    • -mensural notation (symbol specific)
    • -makes rhythmic notation (scholatic or progressing in categories from largest to smallest)
  9. Ars Nova
    • comes about because of a franconian notation problem (imprecise smaller notational values)
    • argues for further imprefection of notes (you get bianary rhythm not just terciary)
    • minim becomes the new note value
    • there is a system of mensural rhythms and signes
    • semibreve becomes imperfect (so you can have 2/4, 3/4, 6/8, and 9/8 schemes)
  10. Philippe de Vitry
    • french composer and music theorist
    • extreamly influencial
    • was likely the author of the treatise that began the ars nova
    • makes innovations in musical notation (especially in rhythm) - lines of polyphony have much more independance
    • his owrk set up the complex music of the next era taht culminated in the ars subtillior
    • most of his works do not survive
    • major contributor to the Roman de fauvel (where many of his known works survive)
  11. Jacques de Liege
    • music theorist
    • wrote the Speculum musicae which is an important compedium of music
    • more traditionalist than other composers and railed against the ars nova and throught the old style to be superior
  12. Roman de Fauvel
    • written by Gervais du bus, Chaillou de pesstain, and Philippe de vitry
    • political satire that condems abuses in political and religious life
    • ⁃ even the name fauvel is satire it is an anagram built from the first letter of vices
    • contains a huge number of musical works inside as well including those of Philippe de vitry
    • became intensily popular
  13. isorhythmic motet
    form of a motet based on a repeating rhythmic pattern found in one or more voices. Tenor generally has the repeating rhythmic structure
  14. Guillaume de machaut
    • Composer and poet
    • Highly prolific
  15. remede de fortune
    Machaut poetic manuscript (poem)
  16. ma fin est mon commencement
    • Machaut
    • Poem explains how to sing the piece
    • Musical puzzle as the origaional notation does not have all the music. The performers must figure it out based on the poetry included
  17. virelai
    • French lyric poem often used in music
    • Guillaume de machaut is famous for these
    • ABB’A form with some variation
    • One of the form fixes
  18. ballade
    • French poem commonly used in music
    • in bar form AAB
    • One of the form fixes
    • Guillaume de machaut was particulaly known for these
  19. rondeau
    • One of the form fixes
    • French poem commonly set to music
    • Form is AB aAab AB (capitol letters are the refrain and small letters are the verse)
  20. machaut - messe des nostre dame
    • First unifed mass cycle we know of
    • Machaut sets all of the sections of the ordinary
    • Chant. Used for tenor lines are all derived from liturgies devoted to the VIrgin Mary
    • A fund was set up to assure a weekly performance of the work each satruday
  21. Italian trecento
    • italian musical style
    • developed due to a new form of notation
    • developed by marchettus de padua around 1324
    • was highly influencial
    • popular forms include madrigals and monophonic ballata and caccia
    • music has a tendancy to get a bit simpler with fewer ornamentaions
    • text painting as a compositional technique starts to be come popular
    • much of the music from this period can be found in the squarcialupi codex
  22. scrovegni chapel, giotto
    • church
    • hugely wealthy banker paid for it - basically as a “let me into heaven card”
    • giotto is the artists who did the frescos inside (all around)
    • ⁃ including every wall and celing
    • ⁃ virtues and vices as well as biblical stories are all depicted
  23. marchetto da padova
    • wrote a treatise that influened the italian trecento musical style
    • talked about notation of time value mostly
    • ⁃ compound time division and assigning note shapes to specific time values
  24. jacopo da bologna
    • more melodic florid lines with a lyrical melodic style
    • wanted a sweet genle melody
    • composer of the trecento period
    • focused on madrigals
    • lots of his stuff is in the squarcialupi codex
  25. ballata - 14th century
    • AbbaA
    • popular musical form in the trecento
    • popular with landini
  26. madrigal - 14th century
    • AAB
    • usually 2 voices in this period
    • 2 strophes with a ritornello (rit is usually in a different meter)
    • Jacopo da bologna was particularly known for this form
  27. caccia (14th century)
    • hunting themes, chasing, musical chasing
    • 2 voices at a strict canon
    • 3rd voice that is not a cannon is common
  28. codex faenza 117
    • manuscript that preserves very early keyboard pieces
    • some vocla music as well
    • highly virtousic material
  29. squarcialupi codex
    • single largest manuscript of italian trecento music
    • compiled in florence around 1410
    • contains 353 pieces all of which are secular songs in italian
  30. francesco landini
    • son of a painter who went blind at an early age
    • 150 compositions surviving (140 are ballate)
    • consitered the best composer of his time and an amazing instrumentalist
  31. double leading tone cadences
    • Also called the landini cadence
    • Major sixth expands to an octave - in landini’s version a decoration briefly creates a perfect fifth before the octave
  32. pythagorean tuning system
    • Stystem of tuning based on the “pure” 3:2 ratio of a perfect fifth
    • You then stack fifths to create the full scale
    • Creates some tuning problems (especially with thirds)
  33. ars subtilior
    • Musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity
    • Centered in paris (and southern france)
    • Music is often written in expressive shapes
    • Baude cordier’s circular cannon is one such example
  34. codex chantilly
    • Primary codex for teh ars subtillior style
    • Mostly frencch composers from 1350-1400
    • Currently at the chantilly museam in france
  35. codex modena A
    • Manuscript of ars subtilior music
    • Contains aroudn 100 pieces from french and itialian composers
    • Includes work by guillaume de machaut
  36. the great schism
    • Break between the catholic church in which 2 (and 3) men claimed to be the true pope
    • Happened mainly for political reasons rather than theological disagreemnt
    • Line of roman popes would eventually be decided as being the legitimate one
    • Caused lots of issues within the church
  37. avignon
    • Sity if the southwest of france
    • Seat of the catholic pope away from rome duirng eh great schism
  38. pick one medieval manuscript and discuss its content, notational system, and prevailing musical style
    • Codex Chantilly
    • Held in the museum at the chateau de chantilly
    • Compositons date from 1350-140
    • 112 pieces total
    • Mostly french composers
    • All polyphonic
    • Mostly courtly dances like ballades rondeaus virelais and isorhythmic motet
    • Many of the pieces are extreamly complex and are written in very exact notation
    • Decorative notation also exists in this codex as pieces take on the shape of a heart, circle, and harp
    • Prevailing musical style is ars subtilior
    • Contains music from master composers including Baude Cordier, Grimacea dn Guillaume de Machaut
  39. Ja nuns hons pris ne dira
    • richard the lionheart
    • 1192-1194
    • Troubador song / ballade
    • Written to tell his friends to hurry up and rescue him
  40. mire it is while sumer ilast
    • anon
    • Early 13th century
  41. nobilis, humilis
    • anon
    • Early 13th century
    • english gimel
  42. edi beo pu
    • anon
    • english gimel
    • 13th century
  43. sumer is icumen in
    • anon
    • 1250
    • rondellus
    • 4 voice round
  44. the agincourt carol
    • anon - english
    • 1415
    • Depicts the battle at agincourt
  45. quam pulcra es
    • motet
    • C1450
    • john dunstable
  46. de fauvel que tant voi torcher
    • roman de fauvel by gerves de bus
    • c1314
    • Serves as social commentary
  47. quare fremuerunt gentes
    • anon - roman de fauvel
    • c 1317
    • two voice conductus
    • Serves as social commentary
  48. garrit gallus/ in nova fert/ neuma
    • philippe de vitry
    • c1317/1318
    • isorhythmic motet
  49. hoquetus david
    • machaut
    • textless isorhythmic motet
    • C1364
    • Intended functoin is unknown
  50. douce dame jolie
    • machaut
    • virelai
    • Before C1350
  51. puis qu’en oubli
    • machaut
    • rondeau
    • C1350
  52. je puis trop bien
    • machaut
    • ballade
    • 1355
  53. kyrie
    • mass of our lady
    • machaut
    • C1360
    • part of the ordinary
    • Tenor is derived from liturgies about the vigin mary
  54. ave regina celorum/ mater innocencie/ ite joseph
    • marchetto da padova
    • double isorhytmic motet
    • dedicated to the scrovegni chapel on the feat of the annunciation
    • 1305
  55. per tropo fede
    • anon
    • codex rossi 215
    • ballata
  56. quando i oselli canta
    • anon
    • codex rossi 15
    • madrigal
  57. non al suo amante
    • jacopo da bologna
    • [madrigal
  58. non al suo amante - anon
    • anon
    • divisions over jacopo’s madrigal from faenza codex 11
    • Keyboard
    • Highly virtuosic
  59. per verita portare
    • anon
    • contrafacta over non al suo amante
  60. cosi pensoso
    • francesco landini
    • caccia
    • Secular cannon
    • 3 voices - tenor is untexted and may be instrumental
  61. la harpe de la melodie
    • jacob senleches
    • Piece shaped like a harp
    • Ars subtieleer
  62. tout par compass
    • baude cordier
    • c1391
    • Ars subtillier - from chantilli codex
  63. belle e bon
    • baude cordier
    • Heart shaped piece
    • Ars suptiller - from chantilee codex
  64. a l’arme, a l’arme
    • grimace
    • virelai
    • Ars subtillier
  65. pictagoras, jabol et orpheus
    • ballade
    • Ars subtillier - from chantile codex
    • johannes suzoy
    • c 1400
  66. pick one compoer or theorist from the 1300s and discuss in detail their accomplishments and importance
    Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377)

    Born and educated around Reims

    Was in the service of King John the count of Luxembourg and the king of Bohemia

    was on call with the king to join the king on various trips and military expeditions 

    Also was one of the leaders of the cathedral at Reims

    Would serve many other rulers after john’s death mostly as leader of the cathedral

    He spent the end of his life composing and ordering the creation of a “complete works” manuscript which preserves much of his work to the modern day

    Buried in the Reims cathedral 

    Huge poet

    Remede de fortune - is one of his manuscripts

    He had many narritative poems and over 280 lyric porms

    His work helped to codify the fixed forms into a stable form that other writers could use 

    Wrote a poetic treatise that explained the organization of poetry into set generes and rhyme schemes

    His poetry would be highly influencial and even influenced Chauser

    Highly prolific composer

    Composer within the ars nova period - worked with more accurate rhythms and more independant rhythm, secular music was more complex and took on some characteristics of sacred music

    Was the most distinguished composer of this period

    worked within every style in his time

    Helped to develp the motet and secular song forms (formes fixes - rondeau virale and ballad)

    Most of his secular works delt with courtly love

    Wrote the first unified mass cycle where all of the sections of the mass are composed by the same person and ment to be sung together, This is the “messe de nostre dame” or “mass of our lady” - all the chant chosen are about mary the mother of jesus

    Was so influencial that a fund was set up to assure a weekly performance of the piece

    His influence was also profound and he marked the end of the Ars nova period and helped to usher in the ars subtillor era (though he was not a part of it) - “ma fin est mon commencement” shows a link to the ars subtillior era
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Final exam - early music