What did Plato and Aristotle recommend regarding parenting?
- Children have special needs and they must be met
- recognized stages in life
What were parents in the 1500s and 1900s concerned about?
- health and education
- having independent thoughts
Parenting in the 17th and 18th centuries:
- concern with abstract questions about parenting
- worried about responsibility of being a parent, discipline methods, and whether or not they are competent enough to be a parent
- extended branch of the cell that sends messages to other cells
- protruding part of the cell that receives messages from other cells
small gap between cells in which they communicate
substance released by the axon that triggers a change in the dendrite membrane of the receiving cell so the message is received
special neurons that when watching something, act the same way that the neurons in the brain of the person carrying out the action fire.
How are mirror neurons effected by watching violent television programs?
mirror neurons in areas related to aggression fired and children were more likely to behave in aggressive ways following the show
How big is the brain at birth?
- 1/4th the size of adult
- almost full grown
How does pruning occur
- from back to front
- visual cortex, then later in the prefrontal areas
How does Experience affect the brain?
- cortex is malleable and other parts of the brain take over functions when the brain lacks ability
- Experience stimulates growth of axons and dendride endings
What is cortisol?
- hormone that regulates daily pattern of arousal
- alertness and attention
- helps body respond to stress
How does cortisol affect children in stressful environments?
- fast acting component in sympathetic nervous system
- nervous system prepares body for fight/flight
- cortisol is high during stress
What is executive functioning?
- ability to hold and use information in working memory
- ability to inhibit habitual behaviors
- ability to adjust to change and solve problems flexibly
- related to dimension of effortful control; skills related to intelligence, but more measures of attention and self control
What are the different types of temperament?
- activity level
What do learning theories help us understand?
- Their important role in modeling appropriate behaviors for children and structuring the consequences that teach children new behaviors
- children copy parents whether parents are carrying out approved or disapproved behaviors
- children want parental attention and will seek it by negative means if they do not get it for positive behaviors: children want your attention
- conditions under which children learn best
Vygotsky- What did he help us learn?
- zone of proximal development (finding potential)
- believed knowledge, though and mental processes such as memory all rest on SOCIAL INTERACTONS
Piaget-What did he help us learn?
- assimilation, accommodation, equilibrium
- Cognitive theorist
- helps parents: take child's views into account, that children need opportunities to explore
Freud-What did he help us learn?
- that children have internal needs that drive behavior
- neither child/parent has total control
- that parents have role in helping children understand needs and fine acceptable ways to fill them
Erikson-What did he help us learn?
- that growth goes through adulthood, children are active and adaptive
- stages of growth and development
Attachment Theory- what did this theory help us understand?
- attachments are formed with important people throughout lifespan
- the way parents treat babies creates long-lasting expectations about the way the world will treat them
- attachments depend on quality of parent-child rel. at the time and will change as circumstances improve or damage quality of relationship
Systems Theory- what did this theory help us understand?
- that the thing of interest consists of many parts that influence each other in important ways
- no part is more important that the other
- low birth weight will affect the child in all ways
Evolutionary Developmental Theory- what did this theory help us understand?
- as human beings, we have inborn tendencies based on our histories that make certain adaptations more or less difficult; take heritage seriously as make social interventions
- strong attachment and closeness to nurturing family members has had and continues to have survival value
Bioecological theory- what did this theory help us understand?
- forces outside the family impact parents' care of children
- importance of regularity and stability in children's lives
- help to improve parenting comes not just from changing what goes on in home, but also what goes on in society
Styles of parenting
- nurturance and attention to children's individuality and behavior demands
- limit-setting helps children achieve responsibility and competence
- many demands of children
- little support to achieve demands
- associated with unhappiness, inhibition and distrust
- allows freedom of impulse expression
- does not teach or support self control and self-regulation
- associated with immaturity an dependence