1. what is the function of renal system
    • remove waste
    • homeostasis of blood 
    • urine formation
    • hormonal regulation (endocrine funct)
  2. what are the three basic renal processes
    • glomerular filtration
    • tubular reabsorption
    • tubular secretion
  3. function of distal convoluted tubule
    adjusts for electrolyte (Na+) and acid base homeostasis through hormonal control of ADH and aldosterone and H2O reabsorption
  4. proximal convoluted tubule
    reabsorbs 60% of ions
  5. what are the endocrine hormones released by the kidneys.
    what are their function
    • renin: catalyzes synthesis of aldosterone
    • 1,25 DHVD: activates Vit D
    • erthropoeitin: increases RBC production
    • prostaglandins: increases blood flow
  6. what are the clinical associations with glomerulonephritis
    • inflammation, prevention of glomerulus from filtration
    • proteinuria, albumin <3.5 g/day
    • hematuria 
    • BUN incrs
    • GFR decrs
  7. what is the clinical association of nephrotic syndrome
    • increased permeability of glomerular basement membrane
    • massive proteinuria >3.5 mg/dL
    • hypoalbuminemia
    • hyperlipidemia
    • BUN incrs
    • GFR decrs
    • edema
  8. how is chloride reabsorbed by kidney
    passively reabsorbed as a counter ion when Na is reabsorbed in PCT
  9. how is potassium reabsorbed by the kidney
    reabsorbed and excreted by DCT and collecting ducts; excretion controlled by aldosterone
  10. how is Na+ controlled by the kidney
    controlled by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Excreted from kidneys
  11. clinical indications of UTI
    • bacteriuria
    • hematuria
    • pyuria
  12. what is urine electrophoresis used for
    • distinguishes between acute glomerular nephropahy and tubular proteinuria
    • screens for abnormal monoclonal or polyclonal globulins
  13. presence of myoglobin
    • early indicator of myoglobin induced acute renal failure
    • severe muscle damage.
    • similar in size to Hgb
    • rhabdomyolysis: severe ARF
  14. presence of microalbumin
    • decrs GFR
    • diabetes
    • nephropathy
  15. presence of macroglobulin
    • decrs GFR
    • big in size
Card Set
renal function, glomerulus and nephron