
Explanatory Survey
move beyond description to investigate relationships between two or more variables and attempt to explain these relationships in causeandeffect terms

Crosssectional design
 the most common survey design
 in which data on a crosssection of respondents chosen to represent a larger population of interest are gathered at essentially one point in time

longitudinal design
 survey design in which data are collected at more than one point in timeĀ
 ex. trend study, cohort study?

cohort studies
a longitudinal research design that attempts to assess the relative effects of age (lifecourse changes), period (current history), and cohort ("generations" who share the same past history)on attitudes and behaviour

tailored design method
 created by Don Dillman (2007)
 recommends three more widely spaced followups, each of which entails new and more persuasive appeals
 first followup sent 2 weeks after original mailing of survey  consists of postcard/reminder of survey
 second followup mailed two weeks later is only sent to nonrespondents, contains a replacement questionnaire, tells respondent that they are receiving individual attention
 third followup mailed four weeks later, invokes special procedures like special mail or contact by telephone to emphasize the importance of the respondents participation

doublebarrelled question
 a survey question in which two separate ideas are erroneously presented together in one question
 ex. How satisfied are you with your pay and job conditions?

leading question
 a survey question that suggests a possible answer or makes some responses seem more acceptable than others
 ex. Was John wearing a white shirt? instead of 'what colour shirt was John wearing?'

contingency questions
a survey question intended for a subset of the respondents, addressing only those persons for whom the question is relevant

response bias tendency
a tendency of the respondent to answer in a certain biased direction (such as in the direction of social desireability) as a function of the content or form of survey questions

types of field pretesting?
 behavioral coding
 respondent debriefingsĀ
 interviewer debriefings
 splitballot rests
 response analysis

wildcode checking
a datacleaning procedure involving checking for outofrange and other "illegal" codes among the values recorded for each variable

inferential statistics
procedures for determining the extent to which one may generalize beyond the data at hand

imputation
a procedure for handling missing data in which missing values are imputed from other informal, such as the sample mean or known values of other variables

regression analysis
a statistical method for studying bivariate (simpleregression) relationships among interval or ratioscale variables

direct and indirect effects
 direct effects: when one variable is hypothesized to affect other directly in a causal model; the total impact of one variable on another is the sum of the direct and indirect effects
 indirect effects: in a causal model, when one variable is hypothesized to affect another indirectly through one or a series of intervening variables

elaboration
a traditional technique for the multivariate analysis of contingency tables that "elaborates" the relationship between the two variables by introducing a third (and sometimes additional) variable and testing the resultant causal models

zeroorder relationship
a bivariate correlation or the relationship in a bivariate table; "zeroorder" means that there are no ("zero") control variables

multicollinearity
a problem that arises in multiple regression when combinations of one or two independent variables are highly correlated with each other and that renders regression resultsĀ (estimates of the coefficients) difficult to interpret

path analysis
a form of causal modelling utilizing standardized regression coefficients that provides, among other things, quantitative estimates of the total direct and indirect effects of one variable on another

descriptive history
type of historical analysis that emphasizes the complete and accurate description of past events

analytical history
the use of historical events and evidence to develop a generalized understanding of the social world

content analysis
systematic analysis of the symbolic content of communications in which content is reduced to a set of coded variables or categories

nonreactive measurements
any process of measurement that by itself does not bring about changes in what is being measured. In contrast, reactive measures may produce changes in behaviour because of people's awareness that they are being studied or observed

