Biology 102 Final Study Guide

  1. Plants moved from an aqueous environment and colonized the land sometime during the Paleozoic era. In order to thrive on land, plants had to develop. . .
    physical support structures and mechanisms for gamete dispersal
  2. Which of the following is a universal feature of the life cycles of land plants?
    Alternation of generations between haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes
  3. Cattle depend on prokaryotes to perform important steps in digestion of plant material, such as producing the enzyme . . .
  4. Which of the following is not one of Koch's postulates for determining whether a particular microorganism causes a particular disease?
    A host infected by the microorganism can infect another organism by transmission of the microorganism through an insect vector.
  5. One factor that determines the consequences of a bacterial infection for the host is the ability of the bacterium to produce chemical substances injurious to the host's tissues. The anthrax-causing bacterium Bacillus anthracis produces a small amount of a few toxins. However, it can multiply readily, and ultimately it invades the entire bloodstream. Such a bacterium, therefore, has qualities of  ______ invasiveness and _____ toxigenicity.
    high; low
  6. RNA retroviruses
    regenerate themselves using reverse transcription
  7. When ancestral photosynthetic euglenoids obtained their chloroplasts, the result was a chloroplast surrounded by three membranes. This is evidence of acquisition of the chloroplast by. . .
    secondary endosymbiosis, retaining the chloroplast from a green alga.
  8. Plasmodium, the organism that causes malaria, has a mass of organelles at the tip of the cell that enables it to enter cells in the human body. This characteristic suggests that Plasmodium is a member of the. . .
  9. You find a fish carcass in a pond with white filaments radiating from it. Back in the lab, you stain the white filaments and see that they have cell walls made of cellulose. The species you have found would likely be classified within the. . .
  10. Paramecia have an elaborate sexual behavior in which they line up against each other and fuse. This is followed by an extensive reorganization and exchange of the nuclear material. The entire process is called . . .
  11. Which of the following terms refers to a eukaryotic organism that undergoes alternation of generations in which different generations do not resemble each other morphologically?
  12. Secretion of digestive enzymes to break down food molecules and then absorption of the breakdown products through the plasma membrane is termed . . .
    absorptive heterotrophy
  13. It is made up of multiple hyphae and may grow underground over a wide area.
  14. Septa are never present
    coenocytic hyphae
  15. Under the right conditions it will become reorganized into a fruiting structure for reproduction
  16. It is not a source of carbon for saprobic fungi
  17. It may form rhizoids to attach to the substrate
  18. Black stem rust that draws nutrition from a wheat plant and damages the plant
  19. Hyphae of Arthrobotrys dactyloides that form a constructing ring to trap, invade, and digest nematodes.
  20. Fungi that grow in association with the roots of eucalyptus, providing the plants with more minerals.
  21. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is of current ecological concern because of its effect on . . .
    frog growth and development
  22. Which of the following statements about the dikaryon stage of the life cycle is true?
    The dikaryon is effectively neither diploid nor haploid
  23. Which of the following evolutionary hypotheses best explains why microsporidia lack mitochondria?
    They rely on a host organism for energy
  24. Contains the gill-forming mushrooms and also form ectomycorrhizae
  25. Spores form inside a microscopic sac; found in terrestrial, marine and freshwater habitats; include baker's, or brewer's yeast.
  26. Reproduce asexually - no direct evidence of sexual reproduction has been found
  27. Component fungi or arbuscular mychorrhizae
  28. Characterized by coenocytic hyphae and plasmogamy
    zygospore fungi
  29. Asci contained within a specialized fruiting structure (ascoma); includes molds, parasites such as the Dutch elm disease fungus, and epicurean such as morels and truffles
  30. The excavates are a clade of eukaryotes that includes groups without mitochondria. Which of the following is the most convincing evidence that this absence of mitochondria is a derived condition resulting from a secondary loss?
    Some of the nuclear genes of these organisms are normally associated with mitochondria
  31. Which of the following statements about the micronucleus and macronucleus is false?
    The macronucleus is involved in genetic recombination
  32. The plants classified as embryophytes include which of the following groups?
    Land plants
  33. Which of the following represents the most ancient surviving land plant lineage?
  34. Which of the following interfere(s) with the synthesis of peptidoglycan-containing cell walls?
  35. Lateral gene transfer is a process by which. . .
    prokaryotes acquire DNA from different species
  36. The best place to look for a new, heat-tolerant DNA polymerase enzyme would be among the . . .
    acidophilic thermophiles
  37. The "green algae" include which of the following clades?
  38. Which of the following characteristics represents an evolutionary link between the "green algae" and the land plants?
    • Use of chlorophylls a and b
    • Starch as a major storage compound
  39. The nonvascular plants have a number of structures or characteristics that allow them to obtain water and minerals in the absence of a vascular system. These include all of the following except . . .
    an extensive root system to take up water from soil
  40. All land plants produce ____ by mitosis and ____ by meiosis.
    Gametes; spores
  41. Haploid unicellular spores are produced in the sporangia via . . .
  42. The nonvascular plants clades (including moss) require liquid water for fertilization during sexual reproduction because . . .
    eggs are fertilized by a flagellated sperm that swims to the egg
  43. You find a mat of short green "leafy" plants growing on your neighbor's front lawn. They lack vascular tissue and are dispersing lots of spores from small brown stalks. The plants are most likely a colony of . . .
  44. In which plant group did stomata first appear?
  45. The most likely reason that nonvascular land plants have never evolved to the size of vascular plants is that they lack. . .
    an efficient system for conducting water and minerals long distances against gravity.
  46. Which of the following best describes natural selection?
    The differential survival and reproduction of individuals
  47. In order for a population to evolve . . .
    its members must have heritable genetic variation
  48. The ultimate origin of genetic variation is
  49. Which vegetable is most likely to be produced from wild mustard, Brassica oleracea, given continued selection for larger stems and flowers?
  50. A small population of sawflies that was once connected to a larger one but is now isolated is no longer experiencing . . .
    gene flow
  51. Biologists recently discovered that black wolves got their coat color from exchanging genes with dogs. This is example of . . .
    gene flow
  52. Polydactly (having more than five fingers on a hand) is much more common in some isolated human populations than it is elsewhere. This most likely a(n) ____, which is due to the evolutionary mechanism called _____.
    founder effect; genetic drift
  53. Which of the following statements about population bottlenecks is false?
    All of the above are true; none is false.
  54. What was Darwin's explanation for the evolution of bright colors and other apparently useless (and potentially deleterious) but conspicuous characters in males of many species?
    sexual selection
  55. In which of the following evolutionary mechanisms would honest signals most likely be involved?
    Sexual selection
  56. Which of the following is not a condition for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
    small population size
  57. Which of the following modes of selection arises when individuals at both extremes of the distribution have high fitness?
    disruptive selection
  58. Muller's ratchet is the . . .
    accumulation of deleterious mutations in asexual lineages
  59. The observation that females of a species of beetles prefer to mate with males with relatively rare color patterns would be an illustration of . . .
    frequency-dependent selection
  60. Which of the following is least likely to help maintain genetic variation?
    directional selection
  61. The average size of the downy woodpeckers in North America gradually increases as one moves north. Which term best describes this phenomenon?
    clinal variation
  62. A benefit of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is that sexual reproduction . . .
    generates new combinations of alleles upon which selection can act
  63. Carolus Linnaeus . . .
    developed the binomial system of nomenclature
  64. Even trained biologists have difficulty telling females of Drosophila melanogaster and D. sechellia apart, yet these species are reproductively isolated. Thus, these species are considered ____ species.
  65. The classification of organisms based on appearance alone is known as the ____ species concept.
  66. The ____ species concept holds that species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.
  67. The evolution of chromosomal rearrangements in Rhogeessa bats supports the role of ____ in speciation.
    the Dobzhansky-Muller model
  68. Geographical barrier-based speciation is also known as . . .
    allopatric speciation
  69. Which of the following is at least likely to lead to allopatric speciation?
    A lake dividing a population of butterflies
  70. Sympatric speciation is most likely due to . . .
  71. What is the critical distinction between allopolypoidy and autopolypoidy?
    In autopolyploidy, one parental species contributes to the polyploidy; in autopolyploidy, two parental species contribute to the polyploidy.
  72. Females of the species Drosophilia pseudoobscura respond less well to courtship signals from males of their close relative D. persimilis than they do to those of males of their own species. This is an example of . . .
    behavioral isolation
  73. Which of the following types of reproductive isolating mechanisms would most likely arise from the coevolution of male and reproductive organs in two sympatric populations of insects?
  74. Which of the following is not a pre zygotic reproductive isolating barrier
    hybrid infertility
  75. Which of the following statements about hybrid zones is true?
    • They are excellent natural laboratories for speciation studies 
    • They can persist for hundreds of years
  76. The addition of tracheid cells strengthened with lignin allowed early land plants to do all of the following except
    disperse gametes more widely
  77. Rhyniophytes were characterized by . . .
    horizontals rhizomes, rhizoids, dichotomously branching aerial stems, and sporangia.
  78. Dichotomous. branching happens when . . .
    a shoot tip divides and grows into two equal branches
  79. Plants that produce one kind of spore are called _____, and those that produce two kinds of spores are called _____.
    homosporous; heterosporous
  80. You find a new seed plant species with palm like leaves. A bioassay using mice shows that the seeds are extremely toxic, and a close examination shows a lack of flowers. This plant is most likely a member of which group?
  81. All of the following characteristics are synapomorphies of angiosperms except . . .
    a reduced gametophyte generation
  82. A new kind of lemon tree produces megasporangia and microsporangia in separate flowers on the same plant. This plant has ____ flowers and is ____.
    imperfect; monoecious
  83. A phytomer can be broken down into which three very different parts?
    axillary bud, node and internode.
  84. The main parts of the plant body are the . . .
    root and shoot systems
  85. Grasses and other flowering plants with parallel-veined leaves and fibrous or adventitious roots are examples of . . .
  86. The large central vacuoles and rigid walls of plant cells . . .
    promote growth and provide support
  87. Clues to the evolutionary relationships of animals can be found in . . .
    the fossil record, patterns of embryonic development, comparative morphology and physiology and genomic sequence patterns.
  88. Which of the following features is a synapomorphy of the bilaterians?
    bilateral symmetry along the anterior-posterior axis
  89. Which type of symmetry is most often seen in an animal that is mobile?
    bilateral symmetry
  90. Which type of sponge cell is specialized for creating the currents that draw food particles into the sponge?
  91. Which of the following characteristics distinguishes deuterostomes from protostomes?
    embryological origin of the mouth
  92. Cnindarians have the type of symmetry known as _____ symmetry.
  93. The body cavity of coelomate animals develops within the . . .
  94. Which of the following are not eumetazoans?
  95. Which of the following can function without a digestive system?
  96. Fleas and ticks are ____ that are ____.
    ecdysozoans; ectoparasites
  97. A trochophore is
    radially symmetrical larval form and the larval form of crustaceans
  98. Which of the following taxa does not contain wormlike organisms?
  99. In free-living flatworms, which of the following functions occurs by simple diffusion?
    respiration, absorption of nutrients, excretion and distribution of nutrients within the body
  100. What type of animal generally has the most complex life cycle?
  101. A head with complex sensory organs, including eyes that are comparable to those of vertebrates in their ability to resolve images, is found in . . .
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Biology 102 Final Study Guide
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