1. Acquisition
    • classical conditioning: initial stage, neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response
    • operant conditioning: strengthening of a reinforced response
  2. associative learning
    • learning that certain events occur together
    • classical conditioning: two stimuli are associated
    • operant conditioning: a response and it's consequences
  3. behaviorism
    • view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
    • most people agree that it should be an objective, but believe that mental processes are also important
  4. biofeedback
    • system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information
    • ex: blood pressure, muscle tension
  5. classical conditioning
    learning to link 2 or more stimuli and anticipate events
  6. cognitive learning
    acquisition of mental information by observing events, watching others, or language
  7. cognitive map
    mental representation of the layout of one's environment
  8. extinction
    • diminishing on a conditioned response
    • classical conditioning: an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus
    • operant conditioning: a response is no longer reinforced
  9. extrinsic motivation
    desire to perform a behavior to receive a promised reward or avoid a threatened punishment
  10. fixed interval schedule
    • operant conditioning
    • reinforcement schedule
    • reinforces a response only after a specific time has elapsed
  11. fixed ratio schedule
    • operant conditioning
    • reinforcement schedule
    • only reinforces a response after a specified number of responses
  12. generalization
    • once a response has been conditioned
    • tendency for similar stimuli to elicit similar responses
  13. habituation
    decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
  14. high order conditioning
    • conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral stimulus
    • creates a second, usually weaker, conditioned stimulus
  15. conditioned reinforcers
    • a stimulus that gains it's reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
    • secondary reinforcers
  16. conditioned response
    • classical conditioning
    • learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
  17. conditioned stimulus
    • classical conditioning
    • originally irrelevant stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response
  18. continuous reinforcement
    reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
  19. coping
    alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
  20. discrimination
    • classical conditioning
    • learned ability to distinguish between conditioned stimuli and unconditioned stimuli
  21. discriminative stimulus
    • operant conditioning
    • stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement
  22. emotion-focused coping
    • attempt to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor
    • attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
  23. external locus of control
    belief that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate
  24. insight
    sudden realization of the solution to a problem
  25. internal locus of control
    perception you can control your fate
  26. intrinsic motivation
    desire to perform a behavior efficiently
  27. latent learning
    learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  28. law of effect
    • Thorndike's principle
    • behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely
    • behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences are less likely
  29. learned helplessness
    passive resignation when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
  30. learning
    process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
  31. mirror neurons
    • frontal lobe neurons
    • fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
    • brain's mirroring of another action may enable irritation and empathy
  32. modeling
    observing and imitating a specific behavior
  33. negative reinforcement
    • increasing behavior by stopping a negative stimulus
    • strengthens the response when a stimulus is removed
  34. neutral stimulus
    • classical conditioning
    • a stimulus that elicits no response
  35. observational learning
    • learning by observing others
    • social learning
  36. operant behavior
    behavior that operates on the environment and produces consequences
  37. operant chamber
    • used in operant conditioning research
    • a box with a bar or key an animal can manipulate to obtain a reinforcer (usually food)
    • attached devices record the animal's rate or bar pressing or key pecking
  38. operant conditioning
    • behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer
    • behavior is diminished if followed by a punishment
  39. partial/intermittent reinforcement
    • reinforcing a response only part of the time
    • results in slower acquisition but greater resistance to extinction
  40. positive reinforcement
    • increasing behavior by presenting positive stimuli
    • strengthens the response
  41. primary reinforcers
    • innately reinforcing stimulus
    • usually one that satisfies a biological need
  42. problem focused coping
    attempt to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we react with that stressor
  43. unconditioned stimulus
    • classical conditioning
    • stimulus that unconditionally triggers a response
  44. variable interval schedule
    • operant conditioning
    • reinforcement schedule
    • reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
  45. variable ratio schedule
    • operant conditioning
    • reinforcement schedule
    • reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
  46. prosocial behavior
    • positive, constructive, helpful behavior
    • opposite of antisocial behavior
  47. punishment
    event that decreases the behavior it follows
  48. reinforcement schedule
    pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced
  49. reinforcer
    • operant conditioning
    • any event that strengthensĀ the behavior it follows
  50. respondent behavior
    automatic response to some stimulus
  51. self-control
    ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification in favor of greater long-term rewards
  52. shaping
    • operant conditioning procedure
    • reinforcers guide behavior towards closer approximations of the desired behavior
  53. spontaneous recovery
    reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a pause
  54. stimulus
    any event or situation that evokes a response
  55. successive approximations
    rewarding responses that are closer to the final desired behavior
  56. unconditioned response
    • classical conditioning
    • unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
    • ex: mouth watering in response to food
Card Set
intro to learning