CDS 501 - Post Midterm 1

  1. Research Ethics
    • rules of conduct based on sound and logical research practices 
    • insure honesty in reporting data, accuracy in describing procedures, and fairness in treatment of research participants and animals
  2. Impetus (motivation) for Research Ethics
    abuse of human and animal rights in experimentation
  3. The Tuskegee Study
    • 40 year longitudinal study to determine the effects of untreated syphilis 
    • more than 400 African American men were denied treatment for syphilis 
    • led to passage of National Research Act in 1974
    • led to creating of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
  4. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
    established ethics for research involving humans
  5. Nuremberg Code
    • adopted after learning about the Nazi experiments in WWII
    • Addressed the importance of free choice of human subjects in experimentation
  6. National Institute of Health (NIH)
    established institutional review boards in 1966
  7. Institutional Review Boards (IRB)
    • independent bodies that review research for the protection of  human participants
    • approve plans that eliminate/reduce harm and offer some benefit to the participant 
    • evaluate risks to participants, assess safeguards, and recommend modifications when necessary
  8. ASHA Principle I of Ethics 
    Rules of Ethics C
    prohibits discrimination in delivering services, research, and scholarly activities based on race/ethnicity, gender, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, or disability
  9. ASHA Principle I of Ethics 
    Rules of Ethics F
    participants in research should be informed about the possible effects of their participation
  10. ASHA Principle I of Ethics 
    Rules of Ethics N
    Individuals shall use persons in research or as subjects of teaching demonstrations only with their informed consent
  11. The Belmont Report
    • developed framework for ethics code
    • institutions must be clear about routine and research services purposes 
    • vulnerable populations must be protected
    • research must demonstrate respect for persons, beneficence, and justice

    • 3 critical elements 
    • Respect for persons: recognize people have value and choice (informed consent)
    • Beneficence: do no harm, maximize benefits to the client, try to make benefits outweigh the risks 
    • Justice: treat all people equally; subject selection formed to the study and fair
  12. Mechanisms for the Protection of Human Participants
    • full disclosure
    • confidentiality 
    • voluntary participation
  13. Informed Consent
    key to promoting ethical values in research 

    • gives info about...
    • purpose of the study
    • procedures
    • potential benefits/risks
    • voluntary withdrawal without penalty
  14. Debriefing
    • done at the end of a study as a review 
    • includes...
    • reviewing purpose and procedures
    • offering to share the results
    • reassure the info is confidential 
    • answer participant questions
    • ID participants who need assistance overcoming unanticipated harm
  15. Evidenced Based Practice (EBP)
    • process that aims to provide clients and practitioners with info needed to choose the best procedure/treatment for the client
    • current high quality research, clinical experience, and client preference is used to make treatment and diagnostic decisions
  16. Components to Ensure EBP
    • clinical decisions based on most up to date scientific and clinical evidence 
    • clinician level of experience
    • involve the client in the decision making process
  17. Steps of EBP
    • 1. ID the clinical problem
    • 2. gather info about the problem from research studies 
    • 3. ensure adequate knowledge to read and analyze the studies 
    • 4. summarize info to use in your practice 
    • 5. define expected outcomes for clients and the families 
    • 6. provide EDU and training to implement the suggested change in practice 
    • 7. eval the practice; change/modify if necessary
  18. 2 Major Sources of Info for EBP
    • raw evidence 
    • pre-filtered evidence
  19. Raw Evidence
    info that has not been subjected to expert review
  20. Pre-filtered Evidence
    info that has been reviewed by experts
  21. 2005 ASHA Convention
    dedicated to making SLP an EBP
  22. Ethics in EBP
    • must include client's best interests
    • must favor the proven intervention 
    • based on clinically relevant evidence in collab with the client 
    • considers costs, benefits, resources, and options
  23. Model For EBP
    • 1. Formulate answerable question about prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, or therapy 
    • 2. Locate best evidence to answer the question 
    • 3. Eval the evidence based on validity, impact, and utility 
    • 4. Combine eval with clinical experience and the client's unique circumstances
    • 5. implement and eval effectiveness and efficacy
  24. PICO Questions
    Patient/Population Intervention Comparison and Outcome questions 

    • population should include age, disorder, severity, time since onset
    • intervention of interest stated in a specific way 
    • comparison of other possible interventions for the population in question 
    • what are the expected outcomes?
  25. Clinical Practice Guidelines
    what makes a study appropriate for use in EBP

    • validity
    • reliability
    • clinical applicability
    • clinical flexibility
    • clarity
    • multidisciplinary process
    • scheduled review
    • documentation
  26. Things to Remember about EBP
    • Every case is different 
    • Not soley a matter of science and evidence; recognize specific client needs
    • reading textbooks/journals and attending conferences is not enough for EBP
    • EBP can be effective without randomized clinical trials
Card Set
CDS 501 - Post Midterm 1
CDS 501