Skin Physiology

  1. The largest organ of the body and most complex is....
    The skin
  2. The study of functions of the skin is called....
    Skin physiology
  3. What is the study of the skins tissue?
    Skin Histology
  4. The integumentary system is made up of which components?
    The skin and it's layers
  5. What is the study of the skin and it's structure, function, disease and treatment?
  6. Two or more types of tissue that connect together make the various....
  7. Other than the brain, what organ is the most complex?
    The skin
  8. Name the treating diseases Dermatologists specialize in.
    Skin, hair and nails
  9. How many functions does the skin perform
  10. Name six primary skin functions.
    • Protection
    • Absorption
    • Secretion
    • Excretion
    • Regulation
    • Sensation
  11. What are the tiny openings or passage ways which allow sweat or sebum?
  12. What is the opening that contains the root of the hair within it is called...
    Hair follicle
  13. The body and skin maintain its temperature thru what mechanism?
    Shivering and goosebumps
  14. What is the body's largest waste removal system?
    The skin.
  15. What is h20 mixed with salt and other chemicals that have built up in the body called?
  16. What is a complex mixture of fatty acids that keep the skin pliable and supple
  17. Fingernails are composed of...
    Hard keratin
  18. Which of the following make up soft keratin
    The skin and hair
  19. Name the layers of the skin
    Epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layer
  20. What is keratin?
    Protein substance
  21. Which is the outermost layer of the skin?
  22. Which is the underlying or inner second layer of the skin
  23. The subcutaneous layer is composed primarily of what type of tissue?
    Adipose (fatty tissue)
  24. It's often called spiny layer or dermosomes and there are 8-10 cell layers, this layer is called?
    Stratum Spinosum
  25. What is referred to as the true skin?
    The Dermis
  26. The epidermis is primarily composed of?
  27. Keratin is a form of which of the following substances?
  28. Which layer of the skin is located below the dermis and composed primarily of adipose tissue?
    The subcutaneous layer
  29. Cells that cover and protect the inside of the body are?
    Epithelial cells
  30. The toughest sub layer of the epidermis?
    Stratum corneum
  31. What is the chemical conversion of living cells into dead protein cells called?
  32. The layer of the skin that does not have blood vessels in it is?
  33. What is the layer of the epidermis that helps protect the moisture of the skin by acting as a barrier to moisture loss
    Stratum corneum
  34. The squamous within this layer protects protects the layer below the....
    Stratum Corneum
  35. This layer is found throughout the body, but is thickest on the palms of the hand and soles of the feet
    Stratum Lucidum
  36. What cells within this layer protects the layers below the stratum corneum?
    The squamous cells
  37. What are whorls?
    Epidermal ridge that gives the palms and soles traction.
  38. What are some true statements of the stratum Lucidum layer?
    • Found throughout the body
    • Thickest on palms and soles
    • Transparent layer that lies between stratum corneum & stratum granulosum
  39. What are found in the Stratum Granulosum?
    Grain like cells
  40. All cells are ______ in the superficial layers of the epidermis.
  41. What cells are found in the stratum Spinosum layer?
    Langerhans cells
  42. Lowest layer of the epidermis is?
    Stratum germinativum or stratum basale
  43. What foreign substance produces an immune response in the body?
  44. What cell recognizes the antigens displayed on the Langerhans cells to assist in destroying them?
  45. What is another name for the basal layer?
    Stratum germinativum
  46. Basal cells of the stratum germinativum divide through a process called?
  47. Collagen makes up what percentage of the dermis?
  48. A fibrous protein preventing the skin from sagging is called?
  49. It gives skin it's color.
  50. Where are the mast cells located?
    In the dermis
  51. Name the 4 main receptors for sensation in the dermal layer
    • 1) Meissner's corpuscles
    • 2) Ruffini's corpuscles
    • 3) Pacinian corpuscles
    • 4) Krause's end bulbs
  52. _____ ________ is responsible for reporting light pressure and cold
    Meissner's corpuscles
  53. Sudoriferous glands produce what?
  54. Apocrine glands are located on all of the following body parts, EXCEPT...
    Under the arms, in the genitals and the nipples
  55. Eccrine glands are most abundant in what areas of the body?
    The forehead, the palms of the hand and soles of the feet
  56. Sebaceous glands continually produce and secrete:
    Sebum- complex mixture of fatty substances
  57. Eccrine glands are primarily responsible for:
    Thermoregulation- lowering body temp
  58. Define: Androgen
    A male hormone present in both men and women. Influences the amount of sebum.
  59. The sebaceous glands originate in what?
    The dermis
  60. What is composed of primarily of adipose known a the body's cushioning and acts as a shock absorber to protect the bones?
    The subcutaneous layer
  61. What holds bones to other bones?
  62. What do touch receptors report?
    Touch, pressure and vibration
  63. What cell type carry lymph nodes?
  64. Which of the following cells connect the dermis to the epidermis?
  65. Merkal cells are located in the _____ _______ layer
    Stratum germinativum
  66. What cell covers and protects the inside of the body?
    Epithelial cells
  67. What factors affect the average rate of cell turnover?
    Sun exposure, age, use of exfoliation agents, treatments and skin condition
  68. What is a physical process of of removing dead skin cells with an abrasive product?
    Mechanical exfoliation
  69. Chemical exfoliation is used when the stratum corneum layer is too thick it is hard for product to....
    Penetrate the skin
  70. The factor that influences a faster rate which an ingredient or product penetrates the skin is....
    Pore size
  71. What is intercellular cement?
    Substance that binds, adds structural strength & mediates biochemical interactions between cells.
  72. Name some conditions of the skin..
    Rashes, acne, pigmentation, lesions
  73. Define: Wheal
    Solid formation above the skin, often caused by an insect bite or an allergic reaction
  74. Define: Lesion
    Wound, injury, infected or diseased patch of skin, change in structure of the skin tissue, most often caused by injury, damage or skin disease and conditions
  75. Primary lesions are changes in the structure of the skin during....
    Early stages of change and development.
  76. What is characterized by dry sensitive irritated skin?
    Atopic dermatitis
  77. What is an infection?
    Caused by a pathogenic bacteria or virus entering the body or skin and multiplying to the point of interfering with the body's normal state.
  78. What are allergic reactions that produce an eruption of wheals?
  79. Define: Herpes Simplex
    A highly contagious viral infection, lies dormant between outbreaks, causes eruptive blister like clusters. Typically found on mucous membranes, mouth, nose or genital
  80. ______ ________ is a common skin infection caused by yeast.
    Candida albicans
  81. What is the technical name for warts?
  82. A furuncle involves how many hair follicles?
  83. Describe a whitehead
    A plugged sebaceous gland with an opening that is not widely dilated. Bulge structure because the sebum can not escape, they are soft, lack inflammation and are easy to extract.
  84. What grade of acne is most severe?
    Grade 4
  85. ______ acid promotes drying and cell turnover.
    Azaleic acid
  86. Another name for baby acne is?
  87. What is bromidrosis?
    A foul smelling perspiration caused by the yeast and bacteria that breakdown the sweat on the surface of the skin
  88. What is miliara rubra
    An acute burning, itching rash. Caused by excessive heat
  89. The most dangerous skin growth is....t
  90. Define: albinism
    A group of inherited conditions that result in the failure of the skin to produce melanin
  91. Leukoderma, lentigo, and nevus are all skin.......
    Pigmentation disorders
  92. Another name for freckle is
  93. Define: nevus
    A birthmark or congenital mole
  94. Define: Keratosis
    The build up of skin cells on the epidermis.
  95. Conditions considered an objective symptom are:
    Symptoms that are visible to the eye. Such as papules, pustules, and redness
  96. What is a skin condition influenced by weather changes?
    Seasonal disease
  97. A Health condition that is created or influenced by the employment environment is considered a(n)
    Occupational disorder
  98. Define: intrinsic
    The skins natural aging process
  99. A form of aging caused by external factors within an individuals control is:
    Extrinsic aging
  100. Which skin type almost always burns and tans minimally?
    Type 2
Card Set
Skin Physiology