H&S Midterm

  1. Kong Fuzi aka Confucius
    • Primarily a moral philosopher
    • optimized self-actualization in order to optimize functioning in society
    • believed people learned to be immoral
    • his civil service exams foreshadow later psychological experimentation in the West
  2. Taoism
    • follow Tao (the way) meaning nature and natural causality
    • values spontaneity while rejecting intellectualism and scholarship
  3. Classical Greece
    • psychology has traditionally seen its history as beginning with the Greek Philosophers mostly from Athens
    • Protagoras was the most important of these sophists
    • he is best known for his maxim "man is the measure of all things" and introducing that the idea od truth is entirely subjective
  4. Aristocles aka Plato
    • A student of Socrates
    • Left Athens after Socrates was executed
    • returned later to found the first philosophical academy
    • Believed that correct knowledge is preexisting in everyone, and only needed to be discovered through a process of reasoning
    • spoke of human life having three components: reason, desire, and spirit
    • his idea of the mind as non-material and separate from the body marks the beginning of the dualistic concept of mind/soul in Western thought
  5. Aristotle
    • rejected Plato's belief in pure reason as the means of understanding the world.
    • Systemic psychology is seen as beginning with his book De Anima, where he defines mind as soul as fundamentally different constructs
    • originator of a biological basis for consciousness
    • believed higher cognitive powers develop from sensation/sensory experience
    • knowledge is not preexisting to be discovered by pure reason, but learned though sensory impressions of the environment
    • developed the idea of catharsis
  6. peripatetic Islamic Philosophy: Abu Ali Ibn Sina aka Avicenna
    • ideas about mind were largely a composite of Aristotle and NeoPlatonic thought
    • like Plato he thought of the "rational soul" (mind) as non-corporeal and separate from the body
    • Further refined Aristotle's ideas of the internal senses; however, did not have an interesting concept of the idea of self
    • speculated that a human "rational soul" would conjure up the idea of "self" as its first thought
  7. peripatetic Islamic Philosophy:  Ibn-Rushd aka Averroes
    • Argued that truth is derived from reason rather than faith
    • Created a fairly complex taxonomy of different forms of intellect with specialized capacities
    • suggest humans share a collective intellect as well as an individual intellect  
    • had a direct influence on Jung's concepts of personal unconscious and the collective unconscious
  8. Cartesian Rationalism:  Rene Descartes
    • Considered the father of modern philosophy and a mathematician who invented coordinate geometry
    • Noted that our senses clearly deceive us, so we cannot be sure that our senses are telling us the truth
    • Most famous for his formula "cogito Ergo Sum" (I think therefore I am)
    • concluded that the essence of being was thought and so the mind must be separate from the body
    • believed, like Plato, in the doctrine of innate ideas
  9. Cartesian Rationalism:  Benedict Spinoza
    • Stated there were three basic emotions:  joy, sorrow, and desire and 48 emotional stated which were combinations of these three interacting
    • believed if you understood the cause of an emotion, you could eliminate its power over you
  10. Cartesian Rationalism:  Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
    • believed that our complex perceptions were made up of many tiny perceptions of which were are not conscious
    • first appearance of the notion of unconsciousness
  11. British Empiricism: Thomas Hobbes
    • Rejected the idea of non-material soul/mind, considering these to simply be constructs for human experience
    • rejected the idea of innate ideas
    • first to suggest that all the mind's contents begin with sensory impressions and more complex ideas are formed out of interconnected sensory impressions
    • first associationist
  12. What did rationalists believe?
    knowledge is derived from pure-reason
  13. What did empiricists believe?
    knowledge is derived from experience and observation
  14. British Empiricism:  John Locke
    • set out to refute Plato's and Descartes' belief in innate ideas
    • he relied on the introspective observation the nature of his own experience as well as that of others.
    • He wrote "the mind is furnished with ideas by experience alone
    • Believed the mind of an infant to be blank and experience begins to create content for the mind
    • Divided mental contents into to categories,

    • Ideas of sensation: ideas that are the direct product of sensory experiences
    • Ideas of reflection:  ideas that are produced by interior mental processes, reasoning, believing, imagining, etc.

    believed that objects we perceive though our senses have primary and secondary perceptual qualities

    • Primary:  can objectively said to exist in the object
    • Secondary:  are comparatively subjective and are produced by our perceptions of them and can vary between observers

    he tried to create a psychology that was the equivalent of Newton's theory of the universe: complex matter was built out of atoms, and complex ideas are built out of simple ideas.
  15. British Empiricism:  George Berkeley
    • An important critic of John Locke
    • his most influential idea was "esse est percipi" (to be is to be perceived)
    • Took issue with Locke's distinction between primary and secondary qualities
    • suggested the universe is essentially created by our perception of it
  16. British Empiricism:  David Hume
    • His epistemology constitutes the most important contribution of Empiricism to psychological philosophy
    • His ideas about the capture of causality had a profound effect on scientific method
    • believed that we cannot determine cause and effect from observation
    • signaled the death of Empiricism as a philosophical movement, because it meant that there were limitation to what one could learn of the world through observation
    • important to the scientific method for the distinction of correlations and cause-and-effect.
    • Also created an early theory of emotionality which he referred to as "the passions"
  17. German Idealism:  Immanuel Kant
    Believed that it would be impossible to create a science of psychology
  18. Influential Charlatans:  Anton Francis Mesmer
    • Created a silly therapy using magnets to people suffering from conditions that would later be defined as hysterical ailments or conversion disorders.
    • inadvertently discovered some form of hypnotic induction and was termed "mesmerism"
  19. Influential Charlatans: Franz Joseph Gall
    Created the pseudoscience of phrenology
  20. Psychophysics:  Ernst Heinrich Weber
    • Known for his experimental exploration of tactile experience
    • Introduced the idea of "just noticeable difference" (JND) to refer to the smallest perceptible difference between two sensations
    • hard to overestimate the importance of his discovery for psychology
    • Weber's law provided for the possibility of establishing quantitative relationships between variations in physical and mental events
    • helped to establish the epistemological function of the nervous system in mediating the relationship between mind and the physical environment
  21. Psychophysics:  Gustav Theodor Fechner
    • constitutes the formal beginning of experimental psychology
    • believed there must be a quantitative relationship between sensations in the mind and physical stimuli in the environment
    • developed two ways to measure sensation quantitatively

    • absolute threshold:  the point at which a stimulus first becomes strong enough to be discernible to the subject
    • Differential threshold:  detect the minimum amount of change in the strength of a stimulus that would be need to trigger a change in the perception

    • believed that mind and matter are simply different ways of conceiving of one and the same reality
    • disproved Kant's rejection of the possibility of scientific psychology
  22. Psychophysics:  Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz
    • offered a comprehensive theory of color vision
    • believed sensations of color may depend on different kinds of nerves within the visual system
    • contributed the idea the nerve transmission was not instantaneous and discovered the nervous impulses travel approximately 90 feet per second
  23. Development of the modern scientific method:  Charles S Pierce
    • wanted to create an epistemology to underlie scientific research that would integrate deduction and induction
    • first to formally articulate the notion of hypothesis testing with statistical analysis of results
  24. Voluntarism:  Wilhelm Wundt
    • Established the first experimental psychology lab and also founded the first psychological journal
    • published a phenomenal amount of writings
    • his experimental psychology was the study of consciousness
    • shared similar beliefs as the empiricists in that conscious experience and higher mental processes were built out of simpler component parts that could be studied in a reductionistic manner
    • his system of psychology is referred to as structuralism but he called it voluntarism his study concerned itself with "immediate experience," which consisted of the simplest sensory and emotional experiences without the involvement of higher processes
    • he believed there were three dimensions to any feelings - pleasure/displeasure, tension/relaxation, and excitement/depression (tridimensional theory of feelings)
    • these basic elements of thought were combined and structured by the minds to create a unified consciousness, which he termed "apperception"
  25. Structuralism:  Edward Bradford Titchener
    • more important to psychology for his stature than his ideas
    • founded structuralism
    • he trained observers to pay attention to elementary sensations and cataloged 44,000
  26. Functionalism:  William James
    • considered by many to be the most important American psychologist
    • mostly because of the charm and clarity of his writings, particularly in "the principles of psychology" which served to popularize the science
    • functionalism: the study of people as they adapt to their environment
    • suggested mental life is holistic by nature and coined to the term "stream of consciousness" to express this idea
    • disagreed with Wundt and Titchener
    • emphasized the principle of pragmatism, which is the idea that the merits of a concept can be test by its practical real life consequences
    • believed that the physiological response associated with emotions cause those emotions, which later became known as the James-Lange theory of emotions
  27. Functionalism: John Dewey
    • Established a school that opposed Structuralism
    • believed that the excessive reductionism of structuralism made behaviors loose all meaning by taking them out of their survival value
  28. Functionalism:  James Rowland Angell
    turned Dewey's school into the most influential psychology school of the period
  29. Applied Psychology:  G. Stanley Hall
    created the child study movement
  30. Applied Psychology:  James McKeen Cattell
    Founded the Psychological Corporation and attempted to create early forms of mental tests for children
  31. Applied Psychology:  Alfred Binet
    Developed the first IQ test and the true beginning of psych testing
  32. Applied Psychology:  Lightner Witmer
    founded the first psychology clinic, this creating clinical psychology
  33. Applied Psychology:  Walter Dill Scott
    founded I/O psych
  34. Applied Psychology:  Hugo Musterberg
    did the first work in forensic psych
  35. Early Women Psychologists and Psychologist of Color:  Mary Whiton Calkins
    • Established a psych lab at Wellesley College where she did early work in the study of memory
    • first woman president of the APA
  36. Early Women Psychologists and Psychologist of Color:  Margaret F. Washburn
    • First woman to earn her Ph.D.
    • early work in the area od animal behavior
  37. Early Women Psychologists and Psychologist of Color:  Yuzera Motora
    • First Asian psychologist to earn a doctorate in the US
    • First research program in Japan
    • introduced behaviorism to japan as well as the Stanford-Binet IQ test
  38. Early Women Psychologists and Psychologist of Color:  Francis Cecil Sumner
    • First AA to earn a Ph.D. in psychology
    • did research concerning differences in the functioning of the justice system and the educational system for AA and Whites
  39. Early Women Psychologists and Psychologist of Color:  Inez Beverly Prossor
    First Female AA to the earn a Ph.D. in psych
  40. Early Women Psychologists and Psychologist of Color:  Martha Bernal
    First Latina to earn her Ph.D. in psych
  41. Behaviorism:  E.L. Throndike
    • His work with animals is what makes him important
    • used puzzle boxes
    • Coined the term "trial and accidental success" (aka trial and error) for his work with cats escaping his puzzle boxes
    • formulated his "law of effect" which stated any act which in a given situation produces satisfaction becomes associated with that situations, so that when the situation reoccurs, the act is more likely than before to recur also
    • His law of exercise stated the more times a situation and effect occur together, the stronger the association between them becomes, and the longer they cease  to occur together, the weaker that association becomes.
    • he also noted the "spread of effect" which means that not only the exact stimulus which produces the effect is associated, but also those immediately preceding and following the effect
    • arguably the first behaviorist
  42. Behaviorism: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
    • research primarily around physiological processes of digestion
    • stumbled upon the discovery of the conditioned reflex
  43. Behaviorism: John B. Watson
    • believed that everything which seems instinctual is really a socially conditioned response
    • first to call psychology a science of behavior
    • believed any behavior could be explained/predicted if the history of stimuli were fully understood
    • his most famous experiment was "little Albert B."
  44. Behaviorism: Mary Cover Jones
    • first to de-condition an irrational fear-response in a child
    • She termed "direct conditioning" in which a pleasant stimulus was presented at the same time as a fear inducing stimulus (Peter and the white rabbit), thus it could be said she invented systematic desensitization long before it was recognized as a mode of treatment
  45. Behaviorism: B. F. Skinner
    • breathed new life into behaviorism with the books; particularly, Walden Two and Beyond Freedom and Dignity
    • Claimed the unconscious was impossible to work with scientifically and was not needed to account for the vast majority of behaviors
    • distinguished two forms of behavior

    • Respondent behaviors: a stimulus is presented and an organism reactions are observed (classical conditioning)
    • Operant behaviors:  an organism acts on the environment to change it in some way, changing the stimuli it is subjected to

    • most of his work was done with pigeons and his "Skinner Boxes"
    • reinforcement was anything that changed the likelihood of a response being made
    • advocated the use of positive reinforcement to condition behavior
    • developed "shaping" in which approximations for the desire behavior were reward; thus, speeding up the conditioning process
    • the two major applications for his ideas were the teaching machine and the aircrib
  46. Behaviorism: Albert Bandura
    • created social cognitive theory
    • introduced the concepts of modeling and vicarious learning
    • best known for bobo doll experiments
    • introduce the idea of self-efficacy, which is the sense of ones ability to deal with life's hardships
    • introduce the notion of consciousness and mediating cognitive process back to psychology
  47. Behaviorism: Jullian Rotter
    introduced the concepts of internal and external locus of control
  48. Behavior therapy:  Joseph Wolpe
    • Created therapies based on counter-conditioning (based on Mary Cover Jones' work)
    • based on the idea that two opposing emotions cannot exist at the same time, or "reciprocal inhibition"
    • out of his work with systemic desensitization evolved the modern technique of exposure and response prevention
    • the most disturbing technique pioneered from this line of thinking was aversive conditioning aka aversion therapy.
Author
mdawg
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343313
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H&S Midterm
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H&S Midterm
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