Cardiovascular System

  1. What is MI + associated CC?
    • Myocardial Infarction = acute blockage of the coronary arteries -> ischemia -> infarct of heart muscle
    • CC = chest pain/pressure
  2. Two ways MI is diagnosed?
    • EKG (STEMI)
    • elevation in troponin (non-STEMI)
  3. Scribe alerts for MI
    • acute MI patients must receive 324mg of Aspirin ASAP
    • STEMI patients must get to cath-lab within 90 min- document ED arrival and depart times
  4. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
    • narrowing of coronary arteries -> limit blood supply to the heart -> angina
    • major risk factor for MI
    • CC = chest pain/pressure
  5. Medications to treat CAD?
    blood thinners (aspirin) +vasodilators (nitroglycerin) allow more blood to pass through while also dilating the vessel in general
  6. How is CAD diagnosed?
    cardiac catheterization — positive test
  7. What is Angina
    • chest pain due to heart muscle ischemia
    • a symptom of CAD
  8. What is CHF + associated CC?
    • Congestive Heart Failure = heart becomes enlarged, inefficient, and congested with fluid
    • CC = shortness of breath, worse with lying flat (orthopnea)
    • waking from sleep short of breath (PND - paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea)
  9. How is CHF diagnosed?
    • CXR
    • elevated BNP
  10. What is AFib?
    • Atrial Fibrillation = electrical abnormalities in the wirings of the heart causes the top of the heart (atria) to quiver abnormally
    • CC = palpitations, fast, pounding, irregular
  11. How is AFib diagnosed?
    • EKG
    • irregularly irregular rhythm during physical exam, tachycardia
  12. What is Pericarditis
    Inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart causing CP
  13. What is Pleurisy
    Inflammation of the sac surrounding the lungs causing pleuritic CP
  14. What is Costochondritis
    Irritation of the ribs causing CP worsened by pressing on the sternum
  15. What is Chest Wall Pain
    Irritation of the chest wall causing pain with palpation of the chest
  16. What is Pleural Effusion
    fluid collecting around the lungs causing SOB or CP
  17. What is the cardiac triple threat?
    • HTN
    • HLD
    • DM
Card Set
Cardiovascular System
Course 2 - Pathophysiology