Captain Test

  1. Triangle of Leadership
    • Trust and Respect
    • Leadership Skills
    • Effective Leadership
  2. True Respect based on three competencies:
    • Personal
    • Technical
    • Social
  3. Personal competency:
    Refers to an individuals own internal strengths, capabilities, and character
  4. Technical competency:
    An individual's ability to perform tasks that require specific knowledge or skills
  5. Social competency:
    Person's ability to interact effectively with other people
  6. CRM
    Crew Resource Management
  7. The focal point of CRM in conflict resolution:
    Focus on what is right, not who is right
  8. Brunacini's Mantra
    Risk a lot to save a savable life, take a calculated risk to save a savable property, and risk nothing to save what is already lost
  9. All followers should consider self assessment in four critical areas:
    • Physical condition
    • Mental condition
    • Attitude
    • Understanding human behavior
  10. Followership
    Encompasses the appropriate actions of those who are led
  11. Crew Resource Management Model (CRM) covers six areas:
    • Communication skills
    • Teamwork
    • Task allocation
    • Critical decision making
    • Situational awareness
    • Debriefing
  12. Task Allocation
    Dividing responsibilities among individuals and teams in a manner that allows for task accomplishment
  13. First Step in CRM task allocation phase:
    Knowing one's own limits and the capacity of the team
  14. Recognition-primed Decision Making (RPD)
    Describes how commanders can recognize a plausible plan of action
  15. Nat
  16. Naturalistic Decision Making
    Describes commanders making decisions in their natural environment
  17. Situational Awareness
    The accurate perception of what is going on around you
  18. Six Steps to Maintain Emergency Scene Situational Awareness
    • Fight the fire
    • Assess the problems in the time available
    • Gather information from all sources
    • Choose the best option
    • Monitor results and alter the plan as necessary
    • Beware of situational awareness loss factors
  19. Situational Awareness Loss Factors
    • Ambiguity
    • Distraction
    • Fixation
    • Overload
    • Complacency
    • Improper procedure
    • Unresolved discrepancy
    • Nobody fighting the fire
  20. Crew Mental Joggers
    • What do we have here?
    • What's going on here?
    • How are we doing?
    • Does this look right?
  21. Personal Mental Joggers
    • What do I know that they need to know?
    • What do they know that I need to know?
    • What do we all need to know?
  22. Five step model for debriefing
    • Just the facts
    • What did you do
    • What went wrong
    • What went right
    • What are we going to do about it
  23. Major risks of firefighting
    • Explosion
    • Collapse
    • Falls
    • Falling objects
    • Rollover
    • Flame-over
    • Flashover
    • Backdrafts
    • Fire
    • Smoke
    • Heat
    • Disorientation
    • Electrocution
  24. NFPA 1500
    Standard on Fire Dept Occupational Safety and Health
  25. Firefighting Priorities
    • Life
    • Fire containment
    • Property protection
    • Reduction of environmental impact
  26. 15 Dangerous Fireground Tactics
    • Collapse rescue operations
    • Responding/returning to alarms
    • Searching for a fire
    • Advancing an attack hoseline
    • Operating on a peaked roof
    • Operating above a fire
    • Cellar fires
    • Propane gas tank fires
    • Wildfires
    • Aerial ladder operations
    • Forcible entry
    • Master stream operations
    • Outside venting
    • Fire escape operations
    • Overhauling
  27. Number of firefighter deaths trending downwards from:
    100 each year to less than 75 each year today
  28. Firefighter injuries in 2012
  29. Major types of injuries on the fire ground
    • Strains
    • Sprains
    • Wounds
    • Cuts
    • Bleeding
    • Thermal stress
    • Burns
  30. BLEVE
    Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion
  31. Enclosed Structure fire dangers:
    BLEVE, gas explosions, and backdraft smoke explosions
  32. Collapse risk
    • Inside: floor, roof, wall, and ceiling
    • Outside: wall
  33. Firefighting during early stage of fire:
    • Higher risk than later stages of a fire
    • Dangers of: flashover, rollover, flameover, and smoke explosions
  34. Building collapse rescue operation dangers
    • Peril of secondary collapse
    • Explosions
    • Possibility of gas-fed rapid fire spread
    • Electricity
    • Heavy construction equipment
    • Search below-grade areas
    • Falls, cuts, abrasions
    • Uncoordinated operations
  35. Responding and returning to alarms:
    • Results in 25% of all firefighter deaths
    • Speeding and failure to use seatbelts
  36. Dangers searching for the location of a fire at a scene
    • Firefighter operating w/o hoseline
    • Firefighters have become lost in smoke, burned to death by flashover, and blown out of building by explosions
  37. Most dangerous area of a burning building
    Area directly above a fire
  38. Second greatest killer of firefighters:
    Fighting wildfires; After residence fires, more firefighters are killed each year battling wildfires
  39. British 5 Step Rescue Plan used during WWII
    • Reconnaissance
    • Rescue surface victims
    • Search voids and crevices
    • Tunnel and trench to buried victims
    • Remove general debris
  40. US 8 Step Plan
    • Secure the area
    • Survey and perform size-up
    • Shut off utilities
    • Rescue surface victims
    • Search voids and crevices
    • Call a time-out in order to withdraw and perform safety size up
    • Tunnel and trench to buried victims
    • Remove general debris
  41. Greatest danger at a collapse:
    Secondary collapse
  42. 2nd greatest danger performing collapse rescue
  43. Law of the Lid
    Leadership ability determines a person's level of effectiveness
  44. Law of Influence
    The true measure of leadership is influence - nothing more, nothing less
  45. On average each year _____ of total fatalities happen when responding to and from alarms.
  46. Firefighter deaths and injuries that occur from responding and returning to and from alarms can be attributed to:
    • Speed
    • Lack of seat belts
    • Dangerous intersections
    • Firefighter's attitudes
  47. Law of Process
    Leadership develops daily, not in a day
  48. Law of Navigation
    Anyone can steer the ship, but it takes a leader to chart the course
  49. Law of Addition
    Leaders add value by serving others
  50. Law of Solid Ground
    Trust is the foundation of leadership
  51. Law of Respect
    People naturally follow leaders stronger than themselves
  52. Law of Intuition
    Leaders evaluate everything with a leadership bias
  53. Law of Magnetism
    Who you are is who you attract
  54. Law of Connection
    Leaders touch a heart before they ask for a hand
  55. Law of the Inner Circle
    A leader's potential is determined by those closest to him
  56. Law of Empowerment
    Only secure leaders give power to others
  57. Law of the Picture
    People do what people see
  58. Law of Buy-in
    People buy into the leader, then the vision
  59. Law of Victory
    Leaders find a way for the team to win
  60. Law of the Big Mo
    Momentum is a leader's best friend
  61. Law of Priorities
    Leaders understand that activity is not necessarily accomplishment
  62. Law of Sacrifice
    A leader must give up to go up
  63. Law of Timing
    When to lead is as important as what to do and where to go
  64. Law of Explosive Growth
    To add growth, lead followers - to multiply, lead leaders
  65. Law of Legacy
    A leader's lasting value is measured by succession
  66. Back-up firefighter should be positioned:
    On the officer's side of the apparatus
  67. Three Deadly Flash Phenomena:
    • Rollover
    • Flashover
    • Flameover
  68. Rollover
    • Sudden, sporadic flash of flame mixed with smoke that appears at the upper ceiling level
    • Warning sign before flashover
  69. Flashover
    • Explosion of a smoke-filled room into flame
    • Takes place after rollover
    • At approx. 932oF
  70. Three identifiable stages of a fire:
    • Growth stage
    • Fully developed stage
    • Decay stage
  71. Point of no return
    5' to 10' into the room from the doorway
  72. A firefighter can crawl ______
    • 2 1/2' per second
    • Takes a firefighter 5 sec to retreat 10'
  73. Disorientation:
    Loss of direction due to loss of vision
  74. Search line
    • 100' of small diameter rope w/metal snap clip at one end
    • Necessary to safely search smoke-filled floor in high rise building
  75. Controlling the door
    Force the door and then keep it closed until a hoseline is ready
  76. Upper limit heat that can be tolerated on unprotected skin
  77. Ceiling level flames can be  ________ and steam created by vaporization can be _______
    1000oF; 500oF
  78. Floor beams that are most suspect to collapse:
    Those supporting the bathrooms and kitchens
  79. Master streams must be coordinated between:
    • IC outside at command post
    • Interior operations officer in charge of hose team
    • Officer/firefighter operating master stream
  80. Most effective way to extinguish a fire:
    • Hoseline attack:
    •    Saves the most lives
    •    Best method to reduce property damage
    •    Prevents spread of flame, smoke, and heat
  81. Causes of death and injury advancing Attack Hoseline
    • Rollover
    • Flashover
    • Backdraft explosion
    • Overcrowding
    • Wind blowing fire
    • Passing fire
    • Ceiling collapse
    • Floor collapse
    • Master streams
    • Incorrect size-up from interior
  82. Most deadly side of fire:
    Side above the fire
  83. Convection
    Transfer of heat via fluid or gas
  84. Three types of stairs:
    • Open - most dangerous 
    • Enclosed - protection when door is closed
    • Smoke-proof tower - safest
  85. Operating above the fire - most dangerous building construction:
    • Wood frame
    • Ordinary construction
    • Heavy timber
    • Non-combustible
    • Fire-resistive
  86. Precautions when going above a fire:
    • Notify command
    • Let hoseline officer know about above crew
    • When possible, assign firefighter at foot of stairs to warn above crew
    • If possible assign one/two extra firefighter to assist hoseline crew
    • Locate "safe" room above fire if conditions deteriorate
    • Above fire crew must have portable radio
    • When operating above fire - 1st locate second exit, before searching for victims
    • Stay close to and face wall when climbing or descending stairway
  87. Five types of peaked roofs:
    • Gable
    • Shed
    • Hip
    • Gambrel
    • Mansard
  88. Image Upload 1
    Gable roof
  89. Image Upload 2
    Gambrel roof
  90. Image Upload 3
    Hip roof
  91. Image Upload 4
    Mansard roof
  92. Image Upload 5
    Shed roof
  93. Evaluate critical parts before operating on roof:
    • Decking
    • Support system - trusses, rafters, planks and breams
    • Slope
    • Surface
  94. Three most common types of roof systems used to support peaked roofs
    • Lightweight truss - most prone to collapse
    • Plank-and-beam
    • Rafter construction
  95. 30o roof slope
    Max angle for walking on roof w/o roof ladder
  96. 45o roof slope
    Max angle for safe roof ladder operations
  97. Over 45o roof slope
    Should operate from aerial ladder rungs
  98. Below grade dangers:
    • Crawl spaces - least hazardous
    • Basements
    • Cellars
    • Subcellars - most dangerous for firefighters
    • Vaults
  99. Cellar
    A floor area that has more than half its height below grade
  100. Explosion
    The rapid ignition of a combustible gas/air mixture that results in shock waves, structural collapse, and heat release
  101. Last line of defense against an explosion:
    Protective clothing
  102. A flammable gas/air mixture, even confined to less than _____% of the volume of an enclosure, can cause an explosion.
  103. Flowing the floor
    • Used when first floor above below grade fire becomes too dangerous b/c of collapse risk
    • Water is flowed across the floor above a cellar fire
  104. A fog stream at a _____o fog pattern will provide the greatest cooling effect
  105. Three types of wildfires:
    • Ground fires
    • Surface fires
    • Crown fires
  106. Ground fires:
    Bog fire - slow-spreading, smoldering fire; burning in dried, decomposed leaves and twigs on the ground
  107. Surface fires:
    Brush fire - often fast moving; burning in grass, grain fields, scrub oak, hemlock, pine, chaparral, or marsh weed
  108. Crown fire:
    Forest fire - a treetop fire; spreads flame from treetop to treetop; most caused by vertically spreading brush fires
  109. Most dangerous area of a brush fire:
    Head is most dangerous; area where firefighters are killed or injured
  110. Area of a brush fire where command and rehab are set up
    The rear, upwind area
  111. The safest position of a brush fire:
    • The burned area; some hazards still exist:
    • Asphyxiation
    • Reduced visibility
    • Heat
  112. Three common injuries during brush firefighting:
    • Eye injuries
    • Falls
    • Heat exhaustion
  113. Master streams
    • More than 300gpm (1 ton of water per min)
    • Fog streams that deliver more than 300gpm
    • Solid stream nozzle of 11/2 or larger
    • Ground
    • Aerial
  114. Most dangerous wall collapse
    90o - creates the largest collapse zone
  115. Collapse zone
    Danger zone a distance of one to two times the height of the wall
  116. Typical reach of hoseline
    • Handline - 50'
    • Master stream - 100'
  117. Dual aerial master streams can deliver ______
    up to 4 tons of water per minute
  118. Most effective method of extinguishing a building fire
    An interior attack
    An instruction or directive, written or oral, issued by a superior officer to a subordinate or group of subordinate in the course of duty
    Will be used to change, alter, or amend Fire Department Rules and Regulations and shall be kept in a permanent file.
    Will cover a specific instance where Rules and Regulations will be changed, altered, or amended for a specified period of time and may be kept in permanent file
    A policy guide establishing principle and standards for the proper conduct of each member of the department
    The willful disobedience of any order, lawfully issued by a superior officer, or any disrespectful mutinous, insolent, or abusive language toward a superior officer
    Failure to give proper attention to the performance of duty
    Incapable of the satisfactory performance of duties
    The vacation granted to all members of the department each year computed and accrued on the basis of one and one-quarter (1 1/4) working days for each month of service or as specified by the CBA
    The period of time during which a member is excused from active duty by reason of illness.  The sick leave allowance is computed and accured on the basis of one and one quarter (1 1/4) working days for each month of service or as specified by the CBA.
    An extended period during which a member is excused from active duty without pay for a specific purpose.  The member submits the request in writing (through the channel of command) and addresses it to the Chief of the Fire Dept. The request time shall not exceed ninety (30) days.  Any additional time of over 30 days to one (1) year must be submitted to the Chief, who will forward to the City Manager for approval.
    An increase of the base pay of the sum of four ($4.00) dollars per month for each year completed, not to exceed one hundred ($100.00) dollars.
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Captain Test
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