Bio exam part 3

  1. parts of the golgi
    cis, medial, and trans
  2. general difference between compartments in the cell
    cell membrane lipid length
  3. difference between sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids
    • glycero-shorter
    • sphingo -larger
  4. where are sphingolipids located
    in golgi
  5. where are glycerophospholipids located
    in the ER
  6. how many amino acids are in the transmembrane domain of a transmembrane protein in the ER
    15 aa
  7. how many amino acids are in the transmembrane domain of a transmembrane protein in the golgi
  8. function of Arfs
    regulate the formation of little vesicles that transport molecules from compartment to compartment
  9. function of Rabs
    regulate the fusion of vesicles to target membranes
  10. protein classification of Arfs and Rabs
    small G proteins
  11. GEFs
    • guanine nucleotide exchange factors
    • speeds up release of nucleotide and replace 
    • causes GTP to become associated, activated G protein
  12. GAP
    • gtpase activating proteins
    • causes the rate of gtpase rate to accelerate GTP-GDP
    • inactivated G-protein
  13. coat proteins
    • COPII-anterograde movement
    • COPI - retrograde movement
    • Clatherin - distal of golgi
  14. calreticulum
    • lives in the ER, binds unfolded proteins and keeping in ER
    • contains specific KDEL sequence
  15. KDEL receptor
    • integral membran protein 
    • on cic-golig and ER
    • binds KDEL seqence and clusters it
  16. function of Arf-GEF
    recruits Arf1 to cytoplasmic face of cis-golgi
  17. function of Arf1
    binds and recruits COPI coatamer complex
  18. structure of COPI complex
    • 7 proteins that span the membrane
    • soccer ball structure
  19. function of COPI complex
    • causes membrane curvature
    • bind Arf1-GAP, KDEL receptor on cytoplasmic surface
    • increase clustering
    • helps form vesicle
  20. function of SNARE
    docks 1 membrane surface to another, causing fusion of vesicle to target membrane
  21. endocytosis
    getting things into the cell
  22. phagocytosis
    • very large particles (bacteria dead cell fragments, microns in size) 
    • gets things into the cell
  23. specialist cells
    neutrophils and macrophages that eats things
  24. opsonins
    bind to targets of phagocytosis, receptor cells on the phago cell recognize opsonins
  25. lysosome
    • little cell stomachs
    • contains enzymes, hydrolases, proteases, low pH(4.5-5.0)
  26. macropinocytosis
    • process always going on in the cell
    • fluids and nutrients from environment are taken in
  27. macropinosomes
    • microtubules that move inside that create ruffled membrane edges that encircle small molecules
    • triggered by growth factors
  28. caveolae depedent uptake
    • 50 nm, small, patch of membrane enriched in cholesterol, caveolin, and cavin? transmembrane proteins
    • forms flask-like vesicle shape
  29. function of Dyamin
    • gtpase activity that changes conformation which leads to pinching
    • relatively non-specific
  30. clatherin-mediated cytosis
    internalizing nutrient specific membranes, specific receptor draws the molecules inside
  31. early endosome
    • part of the network tubule sheets
    • pH ~ 6.5, lower than cytoplasm
    • can either go straight to plasma membrane or recycling endosome in multivesicular body
Card Set
Bio exam part 3