RSOC 543 Midterm

  1. Draw resilience bowling ball diagram
    bowling ball
  2. resilience
    • the ability of a system to deal with disturbance (cope, adapt, mitigate with stress and external shocks, change)
    • roots are ecological - descriptive definitions (positivist viewpoint)
    • normative (vague and ambiguous - hard to generalize)
  3. complexity
    • most ecosystems and environmental problems are not simple to understand/manage
    • ¬†behave in non-linear ways
    • "whole is more than the sum of the parts"
    • multiple interactions and feedback loops between various attributes of the system
  4. Uncertainty - 3 kinds
    • unpredictability
    • incomplete knowledge
    • multiple knowledge forms
  5. social-ecological systems (Berkes + Folke)
    social-ecological systems are linked systems of humans and nature, emphasizing humans must be seen as a part of, not apart from, nature
  6. Panarchy
    • conceptual framework: accounts for the stability and change characteristics of complex systems
    • interactions bw economic growth and human development depend on ecosystems and institutions, how they interact
    • flows between systems, some fast, some slow
    • different scales (ex. global forces vs local forces)
    • how do the dynamics of one system affect the dynamics of another?
  7. tension bw two stereotypes of 'communities' in the literature
    • 1. rural/poor/uneducated, will create a tragedy of the commons
    • 2. ecological Indian
  8. Gadgil et al. 3 case studies for community resource management
    • Lake Racken in Sweden
    • Hudson's Bay Bioregion in Canada
    • People's Science Movement in India
  9. traditional knowledge in terms of conservation
    • based on generations of oral tradition
    • integrated (social, economic, cultural, ecological)
    • strong spiritual foundation
    • embedded in values of stewardship
  10. Academic defn of traditional knowledge
    • cumulative body of knowledge/practices/beliefs evolving by adaptive processes
    • handed down through generations by cultural transmission about relationship of living beings (incl. humans) with one another and with their environment (Berkes)
  11. egg diagram layers
    • (outside)
    • worldview (beliefs)
    • institutions
    • land and resource management systems
    • local knowledge
  12. two sides in the debate around community conservation
    • communities create conservation problems (poor = short-term maximizers, leads to environmental degradation)
    • communities as victirms of poor management (closer to resource, bear greatest burden of unsustainable practices
  13. communities as catalysts and leaders of conservation
    • communities tend to catalyze conservation efforts under these conditions
    • face environmental degradation of a threat
    • possess/have strong sense of place, permanence¬†
    • have strong social networks, engaged in civil society
  14. how are social and ecological systems related?
    • population dynamics(population-carrying capacity) (no malthus
    • ecological impact (degradation/loss = relcamation
    • risk (vulnerability - risk reclamation)
    • resource dependency: (production, conception)
    • resouce dependency (production, consumption
  15. Hazards and Vulnerability Venn Diagram
    draw it
  16. resource curse
    paradox that countries/communities with an abundance of natural resources (ex. fossil fuels, certain minerals) tend to have less economic growth, less democracy, worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources
  17. HEP
    • Human Exceptionalism Paradigm (anthropocentric sociology, study of human relationships)
    • humans the central element of the universe
    • progress = mastering/controlling the nature
    • faith in technology
    • nature = unlimited resources
  18. NEP
    • New Ecological Paradigm (Environmental Sociology, society/environment relationships)
    • humans are a part of the ecobiosystem
    • human actions upon nature produce many (un)intended consequences that shape social life
    • nature has bio/physical limits that constrain and shape economic/social development
  19. Ludwig et al. (1993) four points that lead to the consistency in resource exploitation over time?
    • 1. wealth/prospect of wealth generates political and social power that is used to promote unlimited exploitation of resources
    • 2. scientific understanding/consensus hampered by the lack of controls + replicates, so each new problem involves learning about a new system
    • 3. complexity of the underlying biological and physical systems prevents a reductionist approach to management (optimum levels of exploitation must be determined by trial and error)
    • 4. large levels of natural variability mask the effects of overexploitation. initial overexploitation isn't detectable until it is severe, sometimes irreversible
Card Set
RSOC 543 Midterm
themes 1-4