Antioxidants, cobalamin, folic acid

  1. From least to most reactive what are the AOs
    • Singlet O2
    • Superoxide radical anion
    • peroxyl radical (from Hydrogen peroxide)
    • lipid peroxyl radical (from lipid peroxides)
    • hydroxyl radical
  2. what is active oxygen and what are the species of AO
    active oxygen are free radicals that can damage DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
  3. what is singlet oxygen
    • a free radical that does oxidative cellular damage.
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  4. what is a superoxide radical anion
    • shortlived free radical that can be converted to hydrogen peroxide, peroxyl, and hydroxyl radical.
    • Not as toxic
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  5. what is hydroxyl radical
    • produced from hydrogen peroxide. 
    • Is the most reactive AO species causing damage to all four classes of biomolecules
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  6. what is peroxyl radical
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  7. what is lipid peroxyl radical
    • when a free radical (R) is formed it can react with a lipid to form a lipid radical, which in turn reacts with oxygen to form a lipid peroxyl radical (ROO)
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  8. What are the antioxidant vitamins (3)
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • Carotenoids (Vit A)
  9. what is Vitamin C
    a vitamin antioxidant that is converted to oxalic acid (free radical) and react directly to AO such as singlet oxygen (O2) where it is excreted in the urine (water soluble)
  10. what type of disease is associated with deficiency in vitamin C
  11. what type of condition is associated with increased oxalic acid production
    kidney stones
  12. what free radical is converted from Vitamin E and how is it an antioxidant
    converts to a-tocopherol which transfered hydrogen atom to lipid peroxyl radical, forming a stable species that is recycled back to vitamin E
  13. what disease is associated with deficiency in vitamin E
    • anemia
    • neurologic disorders
  14. what disease is associated with toxicity of vitamin E
    • interferes with Vitamin K metabolism
    • blood coagulation disorders
  15. What is the function of carotneoids (vitamin A)
    binds to singlet oxygen O2 and gets rid of them
  16. what happens if you have vitamin A toxicity?
    harmless yellowing of palms and soles of feet
  17. what are hematopoietic vitamins
    • vitamins necessary for RBC division
    • deficiency may lead to anemia
  18. what are two kinds of hematopoietic vitamins
    • folic acid
    • cobalamin (B12)
  19. what is the function of folic acid
    Why is it necessary
    what is the source
    • a hematopoietic vitamin necessary for synthesis of pyrimidines in DNA (RBC division)
    • function: carrier of one carbon unit. involved in methylation
    • deficiency: will result to impaired DNA biosynthesis
    • Intake: found in all foods or supplements for pregnant women to reduce neural tube defects in newborns
  20. why cobalamin (B12) necessary
    synthesis for pyrimidines in DNA. necessary for RBC division
  21. describe the structure of cobalamin
    • consists of cobalt (metal), a ring system and a nucleotide
    • function: carrier of one carbon unit
  22. what is the source for cobalamin (B12)
    must be synthesized by microorganisms found in animal tissue or foods bacterially fermented
  23. what occurs if there is deficiency in cobalamin (B12)
    • impaired DNA biosynthesis
    • anemia
    • reduced RBC division
Card Set
Antioxidants, cobalamin, folic acid
biological oxidants and free radicals