What is Hepatitis?
Inflammation of the liver.
Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of hepatitis.
What does the urine and stools look like for a person with Hepatitis A?
Dark coca cola colored urine (from increased bilirubin) and light clay colored stools.
How is the Hepatitis A transmitted?
Fecal-oral, sexual oral-anal or contaminated food or water
At what point are you considered contagious when having Hepatitis A?
Typically you are contagious 2 weeks before jaundice shows up.
With Hepatitis B, 30% of persons have NO signs and symptoms. How is it transmitted?
- Unprotected sex
- sharing needles
- accidental needle sticks
- blood transfusions, not screened.
- person to person contact cuts and sores
What are some functions of the liver?
- produces clotting factors (see petechiae and purpura)
- filters toxins
- glucose metabolism
- produces bile
Hep A vaccination schedule?
Series of 2 shots given 6 mos apart.
What is the incubation period for Hep A?
15-50 days (average 28 days)
You can only get Hep D if you already have which hep virus?
If I have Hepatitis B, what should I do to make sure I dont spread it?
- cover cuts and scratches
- do not donate blood, sperm or organs
- dont share items that may have blood on them
- practice safe sex
What are common symptoms seen in both Hep A and Hep B?
- clay colored stools
- dark urine
- feeling full faster while eating
- Jaundice (late sign)
In regards to Hep C, what damage can develop?
cirrhosis, maybe possibly cancer
Where do you typically see Hepatitis E?
developing countries, particularly in south asia, africa, and india and Mexico.
Spread fecal-oral route.
Whats up with the Hepatitis Kupffer cells?
why are they good and bad?
Good because they help get rid of bacteria and cellular debris but bad because they STAY activated and leads to further liver damage
What are some symptoms seen in the Hepatitis Icteric Phase?
- jaundice appears
- Bilirubinemia (increased bilirubin)
With Hepatitis would you have decreased or increased albumin? and why?
Because the liver makes protein, and albumin is a type of protein, levels will be low.
Liver function tests....
ALT & AST=<35 IU/L
How much Tylenol is total max dose in 24 hours? AND, every how many hours?
3 grams Q 6 hours
What is the risk of IB profen for liver?
Treatment for Hep B and Hep C.... is interferon therapy. What is it and What does pegylated interferon mean?
Are there ANY side effects?
- Interferon decreases viral load which reduces risk to liver.
- Pegylated mean its given each week to keep drug active in the body.
LOTS of side effects!!!!
Interferon therapy is not the first line of treatment for which Hep virus?
Which organ besides the liver should you monitor closely with Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) medication?
What does the black box warning for DAA's indicate?
Hep B infection can be reactivated and could potentially cause death.
How is treatment for Hep C determined? (3)
- 1. determine genotype
- 2. HCV RNA
- 3. assess liver fibrosis
What are some collaborative care measures for Hepatitis patients?
- High carbs and calories, moderate protein
- drink coffee
- no smoking
- avoid alcohol intake and drugs detoxified by the liver
What diagnostic tests should be done prior to starting HEP C drug treatment?