ESS Term 3

  1. organisations
    • governmental (national park service in the US)
    • IGOs (inter-governmental)
    • NGos
  2. IGOs
    • established by international agreements
    • different governments addressing international problems
    • UNEP, EEA, World Conservation Union, IUCN
  3. NGOs
    • Greenpeace, WWF
    • not influenced/funded/run by government
  4. conservation approaches
    • species based
    • habitat based
  5. species-based conservation
    • in-situ (in natural habitat)
    • ex-situ (outside natural habitat)
    • CITES
    • captive breeding and reintroduction programmes
    • zoos
    • botanical gardens and seed banks
    • flagship species
    • keystone species
    • species can be singled out for conservation if they are threatened/ecologically important/useful to humans/with non-use value
    • does not exclude protection of habitat
  6. steps of species-based conservation
    • legal protection of endangered species
    • management of habitat
    • propagating endangered species in captivity
    • reintroduction of species into suitable habitats
  7. habitat-based conservation
    designing protected areas
  8. igo - ngo media use
    • differences:
    • -igo: media liaison officers prepare and read written statement, controls and works with media to communicate decisions and policies effectively
    • -ngo: use of footage of activities to gain attention, public protests to pressure, media coverage through protests, access to mass media is hindered (non-democratic regimes)
    • similarities: both provide env. info. to the public on global trends, publishing scientific docs and technical reports
  9. igo - ngo speed of response
    • igo: slow, bureaucracy takes time, dependency on consensus between differing view, directed by governments and may go against public opinion
    • ngo: rapid, consensus already reached through joining of organisation
  10. igo - ngo political pressures
    • igo: considerable, hindered by political disagreement, decisions can be politically/economically driven rather than best conservation strategy
    • ngo: no political constraints, can be illegal activity, idealistic - only best conservation strategy, moral high ground, extreme ations and views
  11. igo - ngo legislation and enforceability
    • igo: enforce decisions through legislation, international agreements and national/regional laws - prosecution
    • ngo: serve as watchdogs for violations, no legal power, persuasion and public opinion for pressure
    • similarities: seek to ensure decisions are applied
  12. igo - ngo public image
    • igo: organised as business, concrete allocations of duties, sober/upright/measured image based on scientific/business approach
    • ngo: confrontational/radical approach to env. issues
    • similarities: lead/encourage partnership between nations and organisations to conserve and restore
  13. igo - ngo funding
    • igo: fund from national budget, manage publicly owned lands
    • ngo: private donations
  14. igo - ngo extent of influence geographically
    • igo: global/local influence, monitor regional and global trends
    • ngo: focus more on local/national information, aim at education, producing learning materils, opportunities for schools and public, monitor/research at variety of levels
  15. cites
    • international trade of wild animals monitoring
    • international agreement between governments to protect species going extinct
    • voluntary
    • governments have their own national laws
    • penalties don't always match the gravity of the crime
    • subjecting international trade in specimens of species to certain control
    • three appendices listing the species
  16. captive breeding and reintroduction programmes, and zoos
    • strengths: organisms safe from poachers, good chance of offspring survival, artificial insemination possible, cross-fostering possible
    • weaknesses: artificial, organisms not born in wild might not survive reintroduction, few returned to the wild, lack of habitat to return them to
  17. flagship species
    • iconic animals providing focus for raising awareness and action to fund broader conservation efforts
    • bengal tiger, sea otter, giant panda
  18. aesthetic value
    • +: enables fundraising, personal approach appeals to people, public interested in conserving whole habitats, tourism and recreation promotes interest
    • -: favouring at expense of less charismatic species, preservation in zoos with habitats getting destroyed, more interactions with people may cause damage, people overlook deeper values
  19. keystone species
    • vital to continuing function of the ecosystem, without them ecosystem would collapse
    • difficult to identify in a complex ecosystem
    • may be among species yet unidentified
    • conserving whole ecosystems enables interrelationships to be perserved
  20. california sea otters
    • keystone species
    • preys on sea urchins
    • kelp forests stay established
  21. habitat vs species approach (benefits)
    • habitat: protects whole ecosystem - long-term survival, holistic approach more likely to preserve diversity, protects yet undiscovered species, visiting intact ecosystem enables studying to increase understanding of its functions, new species, ecotourism raising awareness and profits, research and education in natural habitat
    • species: vulnerable species, raises their profile, attracts attention and funding, successful for saving keystone species, preservation in zoos/botanic gardens, controlled breeding and maintenance of genetic diversity
  22. habitat vs species approach (drawbacks)
    • habitat: protected areas become islands and lose biodiversity (size, shape, edge effects), requires funding for continuous protection, problem of tourism, difficult to establish (funding, econ interests, political situation)
    • species: difficult to preserve long term if habitat is not preserved, ecosystems are holistic so habitats also need to be preserved, high cost (trade restrictions, maintenance costs in zoos), problems during reintroduction of zoo animals to wild
  23. park values model
    balancing non-utilitarian and utilitarian values
  24. protected area
    an area of land or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means.
  25. core zone
    • no human activity
    • occasionally managed (elimination of exotic species)
    • area legally protected and undisturbed ecosystem
    • feeds into buffer zone
  26. buffer zone
    • immediately surrounds core zone
    • protects core from outer disturbances
    • limited activity - research, education, research strategy
    • tourism to provide revenue, raise public interest
    • sustainable exploitation by local communities - encouraging support for preserving the area
  27. transition zone
    • outermost peripheral area
    • human activities - settlements, cropping, recreation, forestry
    • no disturbing the environment
    • high impact of permanent settlements
  28. criteria for protected areas
    • size
    • shape
    • edge effects
    • corridors
    • proximity to potential human influence
  29. size of protected areas
    • SLOSS debate
    • one large habitat is better - more resources, breeding sites, niches, migration, biodiversity, established ecosystems, larger species can hide
  30. edge effects and shape
    • edge effects at ecotones
    • - change in abiotic factors
    • - attract other species not found deeper in reserve, exotic species
    • - leads to competition and overall reduction in diversity
    • circle is best shape due to lowest edge effects
  31. corridors
    • benefits: gene-flow (migration), seasonal movement, reduced collisions with cars and animals, reduced road barriers
    • disadvantages: invasion of exotic pests/diseases, poachers easily move from one reserve to another, could be barriers to some species, increased edge effects
  32. optimum design features
    • bigger is better
    • intact better than fragmented (no dispersal problem)
    • close better than isolated (easier recolonization, easier dispersal)
    • clumped better than a row (shorter distance)
    • corridors better than not connected
    • round better than other shapes
  33. success of conservation areas
    depends on funding, proper research, community support, location, area and distance from urban centers
  34. criteria for judging success of conservation area
    • sustainability (long-term)
    • local involvement
    • habitat management
    • enforcement
    • maximized natural income
    • minimized change to traditional ways
    • minimized costs
    • environmental education
    • preservation of sufficient population size
  35. red list of threatened species
    • IUCN
    • purpose: identifying species requiring conservation/no concern about conservation, cataloguing plants and animals facing extinction, raising awareness
  36. threats to biodiversity
    • population size and trend: small number or negative trend
    • degree of specialization: removing one aspect will endanger species
    • reproductive potential, behaviour and no. of mature individuals: no breeding, few mature individuals etc.
    • habitat range and degree of fragmentation: sever fragmentation, high habitat deterioration
    • quality of habitat: degradation
    • trophic level: higher - prey depletion, persecution due to livestock predation, interspecific competition
  37. probability of extinction
    any animal or plant which is rare, has a restricted distribution, has a highly specialized habitat or niche, a low reproduction potential or is at the top of the food chain is prone to extinction irrespective of human interferrence
  38. factors that make species more or less prone to extinction
    • distribution
    • population size
    • specialization
    • large
    • trophic level
    • reproductive potential
    • migration
    • easy/interesting to hunt
  39. primary and secondary causes of extinction
    • primary (drivers): rapid population growth, poverty, exploitative government policies, exports to developed countries, failure to include ecological services in evaluating forest resources, urban expansion, policy failures, institutional failures, trade globalization, climate change
    • secondary (activities): roads, logging, unsustainable peasant farming, cash crops, cattle ranching, tree plantations, flooding, mining, oil drilling, infrastructure development, biomass burning, wood extraction, biofuel production
  40. hippco
    • causes of premature extinction
    • habitat destruction, degradation and fragmentation
    • invasive species
    • population and resource use growth
    • pollution
    • climate change
    • overexploitation
  41. theory of evolution
    how species change gradually over many years from an ancestral to an entirely new species
  42. common ancestor
    most recent species from which two or more species have evolved
  43. evolution
    the cumulative, gradual change in the genetic composition of a species over many successive generations, ultimately giving rise to species different from the common ancestor
  44. natural selection
    • populations produce more offspring than environment can support (struggle for survival including competition for space, mates, food; parasitism; predation; disease)
    • there is variation between members of a species (some individuals more suited to conditions - more likely to survive)
  45. artificial selection
    humans choose animals or plants to breed together based on desirable characteristics
  46. process of natural selection
    • individuals within population show variation
    • traits are heritable
    • populations produce large no. of offspring without increase in overall population size
    • resources are limited - environmental pressure
    • competition
    • best adapted survive to reproduce
    • offspring of fitter individuals inherit advantageous genes
    • frequency of genes for better adapted traits increases
  47. variation within species
    • caused by genetic diversity
    • due to mutation and sexual reproduction
    • mutation = beneficial, damaging, no impact
  48. genes
    sections of DNA found in the nucleus of all cells - instructions from which a species is produced
  49. gene pool
    all different types of gene found within every individual of a species
  50. adaptive radiation
    • rapid evolutionary diversification of a single ancestral line
    • members of species occupy variety of niches with different environmental conditions
    • members evolve different morphological features
    • over time develop into new species
  51. speciation
    • formation of new species when populations of a species become isolated and evolve differently
    • geographical or reproductive isolation
  52. geographical isolation
    • populations of the same species isolated for long periods
    • a physical barrier causes populations to become separate (mountain range, river, road)
    • migration in search of food
    • catastrophic change by natural disaster
    • individuals carried away by wind or water
    • ex: arctic and gray fox
  53. reproductive isolation
    • genes between populations of same species cannot be exchanged
    • different courtship rituals
  54. plate tectonics
    • movement and forming/reforming of tectonic plates
    • Pangea - Gondwana and Laurasia - continents - today
    • produces barriers (geographical isolation), bridges between previously separated plates, new habitats (climatic variations and variation in food supply)
  55. subduction
    • oceanic crust beneath continental (less dense than continental) - magma rises, islands form (new zealand) or vulcanic mountain ranges (andes)
    • oceanic crust beneath oceanic - new islands with volcanic activity (Japan, Philippines)
  56. colliding
    • continental plates
    • increase in thickness - mountain ranges
    • Himalayas
  57. moving apart
    • creates rift valley
    • deep lakes form (lake victoria)
    • new seas (red sea)
  58. movement of plates where magma rises
    magma rises to create new islands (Hawaii)
  59. land bridges formation
    • great american interchange - north south america migration via central - volcanic Isthmus of Panama rose from sea floor and bridged continents
    • bering strait - ice ages, lower sea level (caribou)
  60. separating gene pools
    • mountain ranges (alps, himalaya)
    • fault lines separating land masses (atlantic rift, rio grande gorge)
  61. new habitats (plate t)
    • islands over hot spots (fiji, hawaii)
    • hydrothermal vent communities
  62. new climatic zones
    sahara, antarctica
  63. mass extinctions
    • period in which at least 75% of total number of species on the Earth at the time are wiped out
    • causes: tectonic movement, super-volcanic eruption, climatic changes, meteors
    • consequences: new directions in evolution, increased biodiversity
    • ordovician-silurian, devonian, permian-triassic (the great dying), end of triassic, cretaceous-tertiary, holocene,
  64. ordovician-silurian
    • 440 mil. y. a.
    • less co2 - less greenhouse effect
    • glaciation followed by rise in sea levels
    • 86% life
  65. devonian
    • 374 mil. y. a.
    • plant life absorbed co2, lowered levels of greenhouse gases, causing global cooling
    • 75% died
    • much marine life died
    • amphibians emerged
  66. permian-triassic (the great dying)
    • 250 mill y. a.
    • biggest extinction event in earth history
    • all present life emerged from surviving %
    • no concrete evidence, many causes proposed (asteroid, flood basalt eruptions, methane release, drop in oxygene levels etc.)
    • 70% land life, 95% ocean life
  67. end of triassic
    • 200 mill. y. a.
    • atlantic rift caused volcanic activity
    • climate change (hotter T)
    • dinosaurs thrive
    • 80% species died
  68. cretaceous - tertiary
    • 50 mill. y. a.
    • asteroid impact (most likely) - dust, less sunlight, drop in T
    • alt: ballast lava eruptions, major rearrangement of landmasses
    • 76% species died
    • dinosaurs extinct
    • mammals survive and thrive
  69. background extinction rate
    1 species/M yr
  70. holocene
    • first extinction with biotic causes
    • currently x 1000
    • before over geological time
    • currently over period of human lifetimes
    • 50% species could be extinct by the end of 21st century
  71. ethical arguments
    • each species has right to exist
    • people have right to develop - takes space
    • animals can threaten humans
  72. aesthetic arguments
    • vacation spots
    • urban environments safer
    • subjective
  73. ecological arguments
    • soil aeration by worms
    • pollination, fertilization
    • plants - photosynthesis
    • decomposers break down waste
    • biodiversity maintains ecosystems' stability, no need for conservation
    • invasive species destroy environment of other species
    • invasive species carry diseases other species aren't immune to
    • pests wipe out species
  74. social arguments
    • knowledge obtained through studying natural environment
    • protection of human rights of indigenous people
    • species are extremely harmful to humans
    • species feed on the same resources as humans
  75. economic arguments
    • need to preserve old varieties of crops for future
    • pests can wipe out domestic crops
    • high biodiversity - variety of food sources
    • areas needed for housing, farming, transportation - minimum standards of living
    • conservation areas are expensive to set up/maintain
    • LEDCs - more important to invest in other areas
    • investing in protection rather than education does not have long term effects everywhere - unsustainable
  76. lincoln index
    • estimate total population size of a motile animal in an area
    • n1 x n2 / nm
    • n1 - number caught and marked in 1st sample
    • n2 - number caught in 2nd sample
    • nm - number caught in 2nd sample previously marked
    • influences on accuracy:
    • - individuals with marks must have equal probability of survival as other members of population
    • - births/deaths do not occur in significant numbers between time of release and recapture
    • - migration does not massively occur between release and recapture
    • - marked individuals mix randomly with population
    • - marked animals aren't easier/harder to recapture
    • - marks do not come off
    • - recapture rates are high enough to support accurate estimate
  77. simpson's diversity index
    • D = N(N-1)/sum of n(n-1)
    • N - total number of organisms of all species found
    • n - number of individuals of a particular species
  78. species diversity
    • variety of species per unit area
    • species richness - number of species (depends on sample size)
    • species evenness - relative abundance of species
    • low evenness - a few species dominate, lower complexity
  79. habitat diversity
    range of different habitats in an ecosystem/biome
  80. genetic diversity
    range of genetic material present in a population of a species
  81. biodiversity
    • variability of a community, ecosystem or biome at species, habitat or genetic level
    • encompasses total diversity
    • evaluates complexity and health of area
  82. ecological hotspots
    • high biodiversity
    • many endemic species
Card Set
ESS Term 3