1. What are some examples of cellular and acellular biological entities studied by microbiologists?
    Fungi protists bacteria and archea are cellular and viruses viroids satelities prions are acellular.
  2. Which of these is/are encompassed by the term ?prokaryotesjQuery11240469877598996151_1539123203235
    Prokaryotes are bacteria and archea
  3. What are some criteria for defining a prokaryotic species, and how do these differ from the species definition used for macroscopic eukaryotes?
    Prokaryotes lack membrane bound nucleus mitochondria and other membrane bound nuceli
  4. What are microbial strains, serovars, and biovars?
    Biovars ? different biochemical or physiological characteristics. Morphovars ? different morphological characteristics. Serovars ? different morphological characteristics.
  5. How does the Woese-Fox ?Three Domain? model of the tree of life differ from the previous ?Five Kingdom? model?
    Originally we had a system made up of five: plantar fungi animals Protista and monera all based on morphology and chemical characteristics. The woes-fox system is passed on gene sequences and now has left us with three: Bacteria, Archaea, and eukarya
  6. How does the diversity of cultivated vs. yet-uncultivated bacteria and archaea compare?
    There are many that we have not been able to cultivate. Due to stability reasons. AKA: the right nutrients, environment etc.
  7. What role did the use of molecular methods (e.g. sequencing and comparison of SSU rRNA genes) play in development of the Woese-Fox model and in appreciation of microbial diversity?
    They started looking at the gene sequences. Mainly ribosomes to separate and group similarities.
  8. developed the first microscopes
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  9. identified microorganisms to be the reason for fermentation. Used the swan neck to prove that bacteria did not spontaneously grow
    Louis Pasteur
  10. developed methods for the isolation and growth of microbes
    Robert Koch
  11. discovered chemolithotropic bacteria in the soil that could oxidize a variety of inorganic compounds
    Sergei Winogradsky
  12. isolated a bacterium from plant root nodules that could fix nitrogen..
    Martinus Beijerinck
  13. How did Louis Pasteur use his ?swan-necked flask? experiments to disprove spontaneous generation?
    Air born microbes would get caught in the neck and able to reach the media in the flask. An intact neck showed no growth and without neck showed bacterial growth
  14. What are Koch's Postulates, and how do they relate to determining the etiology (causative agent) of infectious diseases? Can they be applied to all infectious diseases? Why or why not?
    they find bacteria that?s only in dead animals. Isolate it into a pure culture. Introduce this pure culture to a health organism. Kills host and then reisolate it. No, what about disease that are opportunistic or require another bacteria? Not all infectious diseases are bacteria.
  15. hat is the ?germ theory of infectious disease? and how did advances in microbiology up through the ?golden age? of microbiology help to produce this theory?
    Many individual infectious diseases are caused by the presence and action of specific microbes. Recognized that microbe exist, not spontaneous, and grow them into a pure culture.
  16. What is the typical size of a bacterial or archaeal cell, and how does this compare to typical sizes of viruses and eukaryotes?
    Bacteria and archaeal cells are 1-10um in size. Viruses can be around 100-30um. Eukaryotic cells are 10-100um
  17. Cocci
  18. Bacilli
  19. coccobacilli
    very short rods
  20. vibros
    comma shaped, like rods
  21. spirilla
    rigid helices
  22. spirochete
    flexible helices, and filaments or hyphae, as well as stalked.
  23. What are some major functions of the cytoplasmic membrane?
    Selectively permeable, protein anchor, and interaction with the environment.
  24. What are important structural components of bacterial and archaeal cytoplasmic membranes? In what ways are they similar/different to each other and to Eukaryotes?
    They are lipid bylayers, have amphipathic lipids, membrane proteins,,
  25. What are some examples of energy-independent and ?dependent transport? What energy sources can be used for transport? Which types of energy-dependent transport are found exclusively in Bacteria/Archaea or in Eukaryotes?
    Sodium -proton antiporterm phosphate transporter, potassium transport. Passive water or other nutirients not charged.
  26. What is peptidoglycan composed of? How is its structural rigidity maintained? In what types of organisms is peptidoglycan found?
    It is only found in bacteria. Has a repeating framework of glycan cross-linked by short peptides.crosslinking helps maintain rigidity.
  27. What are major components and differences between the Gram positive and Gram negative cell envelopes?
    Gam + thick many layers of interconnected peptidoglycan. Only this thick peptidoglycan. Gram ? three layers. Outer membrane, think peptidoglycan layer, and plasma membrane.
  28. where is the periplasm located and periplasmic space located?
    Periplasm is a gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane. periplasmic spaceis the are between the membranes
  29. What are the relative thicknesses of Gram positive and negative cell walls?
    Gram + is 20-80nm Gram ? 2-7nm.
  30. How does permeability compare between the peptidoglycan cell wall, outer membrane, and cytoplasmic membrane?
    Gram - have an extar barrier of protection. Theyre more resitant as well.
  31. Be able to draw a diagram of Gram positive and Gram negative cell envelopes, and be able to identify shared and unique structures in each.
    Know the name of the layers, lipopolysaccharides, porins, periplasmic membrane, peptidoglycan layer and cell membrane. Teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid
  32. How do cell envelope structures in Archaea differ from those in Bacteria?
    Archea cell walls do not have peptodoglycan
  33. What are some similarities and differences between slime layers and capsules? What are some functions that both of these structures play? What are some functions that both of these structures play?
    Both are called glycocalyx, composed of polysaccharides, and/or proteins. They very in thickness, Sime is extended but are loosely attached, capsules are tightly attached. Both are used for adhesion and biofilm formation.
  34. Typse of motility.
    Flagella, spirchete motility, twitching motility, gliding or swarming.
  35. Describe spirochete motility
    Uses flagella like structure in the periplasm to spin and move.
  36. Twitching motility.
    Via extension, adherance, retraction of pilli. Like the little sticky men going down a wall.
  37. chemotaxis
    movement of a motile cell or organism based on a concentration gradient.
  38. Phototaxis
    movement of a cell based upon light
  39. Aerotaxis
    movement based on the availability of air.
  40. what is the structure of the flagella?
    Filament, hook, basal body
  41. What is the filament on the flagella?
    extends from the cell surface to the tip. Hollow and ridged.
  42. What is the hook on the flagella/
    links filament to basal body.
  43. how is the filament differnt in bacteria?
    filament is semi ridged. 360 rotation only. Clockwise or counter clockwise determines the direction of motility.
  44. what powers the flagella?
    proton motive force and not ATP.
  45. What are some functions of and differences between bacterial fimbriae and pili?
  46. Overall movement toward a stimulus is achieved by?
    increasing the time CCW rotation (runs) in proportion to CW (tumbles)
  47. Describe the fimbriae
    short 0.1-0.2 um, usually 100s. involved in attachment and adherence. DNA uptake.
  48. Describe the pili.
    longer that fimbriae. 1-2um only a few , attachment. can retract and extend for twitching.
  49. Describe the Bacteria DNA, ribos, and sytoskelly.
    DNA is haploid, singular, and circular. Histone like homologs. have plasmids.arounf 70S ribosomes. skelly made of tubulin and actin proteins.
  50. Describe the Archea DNA, ribos and skelly.
    DNA haploid, singular, and circular. about 70S Ribos. Theirs are similar to Eukarys and thus have antibiotic resistance.skelly made of tubulin and actin
  51. Intracellular chains of magnetite crystals, allow the cells to align themselves in a magnetic field.
  52. Made under cmditions of abundant C energy, broken down to use for C or oxidize for energy, often surrounded by atypical non-unit membranene.
    Carbon Storage polymers.
  53. storage of phosphate for biosysthesis or ATP formation/
  54. Globules of elemental sulfur accumulated is H2S oxidizing organisms.
    Sulfur granules.
  55. Hollow proteinaceous structures that provide buoyancy
    gas vesicles
  56. Protein bound organe3lle like structures. these can have anabolic or catabolic functions.
  57. name some true endospores?
    Gram + Bacillu and clostridium. Phylum Firmicutes
  58. What causes the heat resistance to endospores?
    Calcium and dipicolinic acid content, and protein immobilization
  59. what causes the endospore to be resistant to radiation, freezing, and desiccation?
    the spore is already in a dessicated state.
  60. what can cause the germination of an endospore?
    when it back in favorable conditions. Nutrients, amino acids, nucleotiudes, pH, temperature.
  61. What are the mechanisms of ce3llular growth?
    binary fission, budding, baeocyte formation, and hyphal septation/spore formation.
  62. this is a closed system. numerous factors limit growth, how we normally grow cells in lab.
    Batch cultures
  63. in this system nutrients are constantly supplied. cells and medium are removed. difficult.
    chemostat or closed system.
  64. what are the four major stages of growth in batch culture?
    lag phase, exponetial growth, stationary phase, and death phase.
  65. Newly inoculated cells require a period of adjustment, enlargement, and synthesis.Population of cells is so sparse or dilute that growth is not easily observe
    Lag phase
  66. Growth increases exponentially, with cells dividing at their maximum rate under the given conditions (temp., pH, O2, nutrients, etc.). Growth continues as long as adequate nutrients are available and the environment is favorable
    exponential phase
  67. Cell division rate slows down; Cell birth and cell death rates are ~ equal.Caused by depleted nutrients (carbon/energy sources, oxygen or other electron acceptor) and build-up of waste products (e.g. org. acids) into the growth medium.
    Stationary growth phase
  68. Cells begin to die due to prolonged buildup of wastes, lack of nutrients. Speed with which death occurs depends on the resistance of the species and how toxic the conditions are, but decrease in cell numbers is typically exponential Typically a slower decline than the increase during exponential growth phase. May involve replacement by genetically altered subpopulations capable of utilizing distinct waste or cell lysis products.
    Death phase
  69. at what stage in culture growth are bacteria most vulnerable?
    exponential growth.
  70. what is the formula for doubling time growth and what is the area that matters?
    n = (log(Nt) - log(Ni))/log(2) then t = tf-ti and g=t/n and the exponential stage is where to take it.
  71. what are some cultivation dependent ways to count cells?
    viable plate count (count colonies on plate), most probable number (dilution method), and turbidometric methods (OD).
  72. what are some cultivation independent ways to count cells?
    Diurect cell count via microscopy, flow cytometry, and molecular methods.
  73. What are the three cardinal temperatures of growth?
    minimumm, optimum, and maximum.
  74. the lowest temperature that permits a microbe?s continued growth and metabolism; below this temperature, its activities are limited (protein function, membrane fluidity
  75. an intermediate temperature between the minimum and the maximum which promotes the fastest rate of growth and metabolism
  76. the highest temperature at which growth and metabolism can proceed, often due to denaturation (unfolding) of key proteins and/or membrane loses integrity
  77. Optimum temperature below 15?C; Can grow well at 0 ?C, but cannot grow above 20?C. Rarely pathogenic
  78. Have an optimum temperature between 15?C and 30?C, but have a low minimum growth temperature (usually at or near 0 ?C).
  79. Optimal growth between 20?C and 45?C, with minimum typically >15 ?C. Human pathogens have optimal growth temperatures between 30?C and 40?C
  80. Mesophiles that can survive short exposure to high temperatures, but cannot grow at these temperatures
  81. Optimum growth temperatures between 45?C and 80?C
  82. optimal growth from 80-121?C; none <50?C Only Bacteria and Archaea; Typically only Archaea >100 ?C
  83. what are the five different O2 patterns in microbes?
    Aerobes, oblogate anaerobes, faculative anaerobes, microaerophiles, and aerotolerant anaerobes.
  84. Can use gaseous oxygen in their metabolism and possess the enzymes needed to process toxic oxygen products. An organism that cannot grow without oxygen is an obligate aerobe.
  85. Lack the metabolic enzyme systems for using oxygen in respiration. Also lack the enzymes for processing toxic oxygen and die in its presence. Examples: Many oral bacteria, intestinal bacteria
    Obligate anaerobes
  86. Do not require oxygen for metabolism, but use it when it is present. Can also perform anaerobic metabolism. Many examples?.
    Faculative anaerobes
  87. Do not grow at normal atmospheric concentrations of oxygen but require a small amount (e.g. 2-10% O2) for aerobic respiration. Examples: Organisms that live in soil or water or in mammalian hosts, not directly exposed to atmosphere
  88. Do not utilize oxygen but can survive and grow to a limited extent in its presence. They are not harmed by oxygen, mainly because they possess mechanisms for breaking down peroxides and superoxide. Examples: Certain lactobacilli, streptococci, Clostridium spp.
    Aerotolerant anaerobes
  89. What are some terms for microbes that can tolerate different amounts of salt (or other solute
    Osmophiles, halophiles: Halotolerant, halophilic, and extreme halophile
  90. live in habitats with high solute concentration
  91. prefer high concentration of salt
  92. Growth optimum below 0.2 M NaCl but can grow at higher (e.g. >1M)
  93. Growth optimum above 0.2 M NaCl
  94. Growth at or near saturation with NaCl
    Extreme halophile
  95. live or grow in habitats between pH 6 and 8 because strong acids and bases can be damaging to enzymes and other cellular substances
  96. organisms with optimal growth in acidic environments (pH < 5.5) Some extreme acidophiles can grow at pH 0 or lowe
  97. organisms w/ optimal growth in alkaline conditions (pH > 8) pH of 11.5-12 seems to be the maximum tolerated
  98. growth suspension in a liquid medium.
  99. are mixed communities of bacteria and other microbes that are attached to a surface and each other\
  100. Those required in relatively large quantity (~>1%) Components of major macromolecules and cell structures.
  101. What are the macronutrients?
  102. : Nutrients required in small amounts (~<1% or much less) Sometimes called ?trace metals? or ?trace elements? Play specific roles, e.g. involved in enzyme function
  103. What types of molecules make up the majority of the dry mass of a typical microbial cell?
  104. if the bug gets carbon from inorganic
  105. if the bug gets the carbon from organic
  106. if the bug gets energy from light
  107. if the bug get energy from chemical rxns
  108. if the bug gets its elkectrons from inoganic
  109. if the bug gets its electrons from organic
  110. a medium that , all individual chemical components are present in known quantities
  111. a medium that exact concentrations of some components are not known, often because they are extracts from other organisms
  112. a medium that has a variety of different growth substrates
  113. a medium that only a single or a few substrates, usually specifically one or a few carbon/e- sources.
Card Set
bio 320 CSUSB exam 1