Early music

  1. Ave Maris Stella
    • Anon
    • Chanticleer recording - listen for clean recording, male choir, in a church, starts with the name
    • Around 1000
    • Plainchant
  2. Kyrie(ordinary of the mass)
    • Anon
    • Boomy recording, starts with kyrie
    • Around 1000
    • Plainchant
  3. Tecum principiem/ Psalm: Dixit Dominus (psalm 109)
    • Anon
    • Around 1000
    • Starts with solo baritone then male choir, starts with the Tecum Principiem text
    • Is an antiphon, call and response, used during the mass
    • Plainchant
  4. Puer Natus (introit)
    • anon
    • Around 1000
    • Sung while the prist approaches the altar for the eucharist (introit)
    • Starts with title, male tenor choir
    • Plainchant
  5. Omnipotens genitor
    • Kyrie Trope
    • BY tuitilo of St. Gall
    • Around 1000
    • Baritone Male choir, starts with title,
    • Organium
  6. Kyrie, Omnipotens genitor (ordinary of the mass)
    • Anon
    • Around 1000
    • Hitting stairs sound, male baritone choir
    • Organum
  7. Congaudeant catholici
    • Magister albertus of paris
    • Around 1150
    • Starts with “congaudeant”, boomy room, long short rhythmic scheme
  8. Verdunt omnes (gradual)
    • Anon - from 11th century
    • Starts with title text, call and response,
    • Used for the christmas mass as a gradual (before the gospel as the reader is walking to the pulpet
  9. Viderunt hemaneul
    • 2 voice
    • Anon
    • C 1125
    • Starts with titular text
  10. Viderunt omnes leoninus
    • Leoninus c 1170
    • Gradual used on christmas day
    • Has the bells
  11. Viderunt omnes perotin
    • Perotin c 1198
    • Gradual used on christmas day
    • Starst with super long”v”, multiple voices
  12. Ce fut en mai
    • Moint d’ arras
    • Trouvere song
    • C 1225
    • Starts withdulcimer sounding harp, spread voice singing titular text
  13. Kalenda maya
    • By raimbaut de vaqueiras
    • C 1200
    • Troubadour song
    • Starts with voilin sounding thing w/ drum thing everntually, rhymes maya constantly
  14. a chantar m’er
    • beatriz de dia
    • trouvere canso
    • c 1175
    • starts with violins maybe herdy gurdy, starts with title, woman singer
  15. can vei la lauzeta mover
    • bernart de ventadorn
    • trouvere casno
    • c 1165
    • starts with solo male singing title, no accompaniment
  16. regis glorios
    • giraut de borneill
    • alba (song type)
    • c 1200ish
    • troubadour song
    • drone hurdygurdy/voilin start, starts with title but sounds like “resclurios”
  17. ja nuns hons pris ne dira
    • richard the loinheart
    • troubador song
    • c 1192
    • bagpipe accompaniment, starst with title sung
  18. o rubor sanguinis
    • antiphon
    • hildegard
    • c1150
    • female choir singing title, monophonic
  19. kyrie eleison
    • hildegard
    • c 1150
    • antiphon - call and response
    • female choir, singing title
  20. alleluia in maria benignitas
    • gradual
    • c 1150
    • no recording?
  21. alleluia - o virga mediatrix
    • hildegard
    • c 1150
    • femail choir singing allelula, femail soloist singing like a bagpipe, text does not match
    • for mass
  22. ordo virtutum
    • hildegard
    • c 1151
    • morality play about the struggle for a soul
    • recorder, vocal solists, spoken text by devil
  23. on parole de batre/ a paris/ frese nouvele
    • anon
    • c 1280 from montpellier codex
    • motet
    • male voice singing “frese nouvele” then other parts build in
  24. mout me fu grief/ robin ,’aime’ portare
    • anon
    • mid 13th from montpellier codex
    • motet
    • “midevil folk band starts” voices all enter together with woman on top men on bottom
  25. quant florist la violete, el mois de mai, et gaudebit
    • anon from montpellier codex
    • 13th century
    • band and vocalists at the same time, woman sings melody men accompany
  26. el mois d’avril/ o quam sancta/ et gaudebit
    • anon from 13th century
    • montpellier codex
    • voices only no band,
  27. Boethius’ teachings
    • introduced the idea of the quadrivium and wrote a book for each of the 4 parts including music
    • wrote a book called fundumentals of music- idea was that music was such a part of being human that you couldnt be seperate from it music
    • ⁃ the book summarised greek theories of music known by scholars of the day and became the standard school text for the subject.
    • seperated The World into 3 “musics”
    • musica mundana - music of The World
    • musica humana - harmony of the human body and spiritual harmony
    • musica instrumentalis - instrumental music
  28. Pythagoras and his contrivution to music
    • realises that “music is numbers made sound”
    • idea that intervals could be calculated by the use of ratios
    • gives us pathoragian tuning
  29. Charlemagne and his contribution to codifying the christian liturgy
    • reforms education and enlists Alcuin to reform Church chant
    • he standardizes liturgical and chant practices
    • gives us gregorian chant
  30. Gregorian chant
    • monophonic unaccompnaied sacred song of the roman catholic church
    • arose thanks to charlemagne standardizing chruch practices
  31. Antiphon
    • short chant sung as a refrain, psalm texted
    • generally coupeled with a refrain to create a “call and response” between a soloist and choir
  32. Proper vs ordinary of the mass + example
    • proper - for a specific time or saint
    • ordinary - daily mass
    • a kyrie is part of the ordinary, a gradual would be used for specific feast days
  33. Guido d’arezzo contrivution to medieval music education
    • credited as the inventer of modern musical notation
    • invented the solfege system and a way of teaching where pitches were relative to eachother(guidonian hand)
    • wrote a text called “micrologus” whoch was a widely distributed treatise on music
  34. Trope
    • process of adding new music to pre existing chants
    • could be just small bits like extra melismas but even going as far as adding new verses, new music, or using the origional material as a bass to compose over after extending it
  35. Unheightened vs heightened neumes
    • unheightened - indicatred general shape but not exact pitches or rhythm
    • heightened - shows relative pitches between neumes and adds staff lines. Can also indicate rhythmic modes
  36. Musica enchiriadis
    • Anon musical treatise of the 9th century
    • First attempt to set up a system for the rules of polyphony
  37. St gall
    • monestary where we get many of our existing early music sources from
    • hugely rich library with over 160000 books
    • earliest known use of the neume - 9th + 10 century examples in its library
  38. Organum
    • a form of early polyphony based on existing plainsong
    • ⁃ add perfect intervals on top of existing plainchant
    • ⁃ or add a droning bass line
    • eventually creates more complex compostions as voices were added and more indenpance was allowed which gives rise to leonin and perotin and eventually motets
  39. Anon iv
    • designation given to an anonomous writer who wrote about the notre dame school of polyphony
    • he is how we know who are leonin and peroin are by name
    • gives descriptions of aspects of music as well
  40. Magnus liber organi
    Bok that contains nearly 100 pieces of 2 voice organum
  41. Rhythmic modes
    • divisions of 6 sub beats
    • based on poetic stresses in language
    • Developed by the notre dame composers aroudn 1200
  42. Troubador/trobairitz
    • From souther france
    • Traveling performer
  43. Trouveres
    • From northern france - centered around paris
    • Traveling performer
  44. Vida
    Short sensationalized biography of a performer as an introduciton to one of their works.
  45. Example of a troubador what do we know about them
    • One example is Raimbaut de vacqueiras
    • From southern france
    • Son of a poor knight who entered the service of the marquis of montferrat and earned a knighthood by saving his lords life
    • Joined the 4th crusade and was likely killed during this with his patron
    • 35 poems 7 with music survive
  46. What is in a vida
    A biography of a perfomer as an introduction to their work. Generally quite sensationalized
  47. Features of polyrtextual 13th century motet
    • Slow moving tenor voice from chant
    • Faster and layered upper voices
    • Arrives at 5ths and octaves
    • Words make a commentary on chant
  48. Hildegards visions
    • Had them since a young age but started recording them once a vision told her to
    • Was approved and given papal approval to document these visions and gained instant credibility
    • Often used these visions to condem the church’s insitiutional corruption and to help advance the role of women.
    • Visions were likely part of some disease such as migranes
  49. Cantigas de santa maira
    • 420 poems with musical notation
    • From around 1250
    • Every song references the virgin mary
    • Unknown authros although king alfonso x is a possiblity for some of the porems
  50. One medieval manuscript
    • Magnus Liber Organi
    • ⁃ Content
    • ⁃ 882 works for between 2-4 voices
    • ⁃ From various composers most of which are unnamed
    • ⁃ Notation system
    • ⁃ Neumatic with rhythmic modes and even some mensural notation as you get into the later parts
    • ⁃ Period
    • ⁃ 12th and early 13th century
    • ⁃ Prevailing musical style
    • ⁃ Organum written by the masters of the Notre Dame School of music including leonin and perotin
    • ⁃ Anonymus 4 credits Leonin with creating the book then Perotin updating and expanding on it which then continued to be updated
  51. Essay - Talk about Text allegorica commentary in a motet
    • Quant florist la violete/El mois de mai/Et gaudebit.
    • -The tenor, Et Gaudevit, was written by Perotin and takes its text from the alleluia verse from the Feast of the Ascension mass. This text describes Christ ascending into heaven and contains commentary from Christ about how he will “not leave you as orphans.” This text and message is speaking about Christ ascending into heaven and therefore “leaving” the church behind. However, he promises to return to take care of the church.
    • -With the meaning of the tenor fully exposed, rather than fragemented as in the motet, we can very easily overlay the motetus and triplum texts to create interwoven levels of meaning. The Motetus, El Mois De Mai, is the story of a knight trying to seduce a maiden that he encounters while he is out riding. However, she stays faithful to her man and rejects the knight. From an allegorical standpoint Hoekstra argues that the composer intended the woman in this text to refer to the Church who is rejecting the advances of the knight or Satan while her lover (Christ) is away. This creates the first level of meaning.
    • -The triplum adds an additional layer of meaning. In this poem, Quant Florist, A poet is declaring his love for his woman and expresses how they will never be parted except by some spy. Here Christ, the speaker, is expressing his love for the Church and is complementing its perfection. However, he realises that the Church may be swayed from him by some “spy” or the knight (and therefore Satan) from the motetus. With these three layers we have a complete story of Christ’s love for the Church and his faithfulness to the Church. Allegorically, He is the he is the shepard who has left his maiden (the church) and his singing her praises while his maiden is turning down the knight (Satan) showing her loyalty to him.
Card Set
Early music