Stimulants, psychedelics

  1. way drugs reach the brain fastest to slowest
    inhaling, injecting, snorting, oral ingestion, transdermal
  2. cocaine vs crack
    • crack-smoked, high comes quick and leaves quick, higher addiction potential(sec)
    • cocaine-snorted, dissolved, and injected, takes ~10 mins to get high
  3. how does cocaine work in the brain
    it blocks dopamine transporters that take away excess dopamine, as a result dopamine signal is kept on. Mainly in the VTA
  4. example of amphetamines
    meth, adderal, vyvansem, amphetamine congeners
  5. meth vs cocaine
    • cocaine-brief rush
    • amphetamines- last longer, less toxic, less expensive, similar mech of action but phetamines also metabolize neuros
  6. Cocaine/meth undesired effects
    • acute psychosis-hallucinations/delusions
    • serious crash
    • severe depression
    • associated w/ property crime and violence
  7. cocaine/meth medical effects
    infectious disease, mal nutrition, heart uscle damage, unexpected heart failure, deformations, sores, nasal septum, teeth
  8. neurocognitive enhancement of stimulants
    executive function enhancement (pre-frontal cortex), memory enhancement
  9. what type of chemical is caffeine
  10. whats the most widely used psychoactive drug in the US
    caffeine 85%
  11. caffeine pharmacology
    • rapid absorption if taken orally 
    • peak levels at 30 mins. 
    • half-life 3 hours
  12. concerns with caffeine
    • you can overdose (toxicity is pretty low)
    • caffeinism (excessive use of caffeine)
    • can cause unpleasant symptoms
  13. whats the leading cause of preventable death
    smoking tobacco
  14. what is nicotine and dependence
    • a naturally occurring liquid alkaloid that is colorless and volatile
    • tolerance and dependence develop quickly 
    • highly toxic
  15. physiological effects of nicotine
    • resembles that of acetylcholine
    • first stimulates than blocks receptor sites
    • causes release of adrenaline
  16. general effects of psychedelics
    • alters cognition and perception
    • acute awareness of all sensations
    • delusions, hallucinations, and illusions
  17. desired effects of psychedelics
    • visual effects, synesthesia-"seeing sound"
    • introspection, spiritual experiences, mystical states
  18. undesired effects of psychedelics
    • impaired reasoning, judgement, and memory
    • effects are state-dependent
  19. LSD
    • lysergic acid diethylamide
    • synthesized from alkaloids found in a fungus
  20. LSD pharmacology
    • colorless, odorless, tasteless, very potent
    • no known overdoses
    • absorbed rapidly through the GI tract
    • half life 3 hours
    • tolerance develops rapidly
  21. psilocybin
    psychedelic found in mushoom plant
Card Set
Stimulants, psychedelics