1. Natural selection
    • Four necessary conditions:
    • 1.phenotypic variation among individuals
    • 2. variation is (partly) heritable
    • 3. more individuals are born than will survive and reproduce (individuals have
    • differential fitness)
    • 4. fitness is non-random and depends on
    • phenotype
  2. HIV
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  3. misidentified paternity

  4. conspecific nest parasitism

  5. shared environments

  6. maternal effects

  7. Defining heritability

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  8. Partitioning genetic variation

    • VG =VA +VD

    • VA = additive genetic variation

    • VD = dominance genetic variation

  9. Narrow-sense heritability

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  10. What you should know about QTL mapping

    • why is QTL mapping done?

    • what are the general steps involved?

    • why do parental genotypes need to be homozygous?

    • why score phenotypes and genotypes in F2 offspring?

    • what is the purpose of genetic markers?

    • for QTLs that are physically linked to marker loci, what should the associations between phenotype and genotype look like?

  11. Environmental factors that influence fitness are called:

    • Agents of selection

    • synonyms:selection factors, selection agents, selection pressures, selection environment, etc.

    • Traits evolve in response to agents of selection

    • to produce adaptations

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