1. Name the major winegrowing areas in Toscana
    • Coastal: Northern Coast, Northern Maremma (Alta Maremma), Southern Maremma (aka Maremma Grossetana or just Maremma), Elba
    • Inland: Central, Eastern, Southern
    • Note: Maremma Laziale is part of Maremma but lies in Lazio
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  2. Name the major mountains in Toscana, from north to south
    • Alpi Apuane
    • Northern Apennines
    • Pratomagno
    • Monte Amiata

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  3. Are the coastal hills or inland hills higher?
    • Inland hills: over 1600 feet
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  4. Describe the soil in Toscana
    • General: clay, limestone, sandstone with 2 types of common rock
    • Galestro: metamorphic rock found in central Toscana; crumbly clayey, schist-like rock with sharp edges and a tendency to flake
    • Alberese: fine-grained calcareous marl found in central and southern Chianti Classico
  5. Name the important appellation on the Northern Coast of Toscana
    Montecarlo DOC
  6. Name the 4 important appellations on the Northern Maremma coast of Toscana
    • Bolgheri Sassicaia DOC
    • Bolgheri DOC
    • Suvereto DOCG
    • Val di Cornia Rosso DOCG
  7. Name the 4 important appellations on the Southern Maremma coast of Toscana
    • Montecucco DOC
    • Montecucco Sangiovese DOCG
    • Morellino di Scansano DOCG
    • Maremma Toscana DOC
  8. Name the important appellation on the Island of Elba
    Elba Aleatico Passito DOCG
  9. Name the 8 important appellations in the inland Central area of Toscana
    • Carmignano DOCG
    • Barco Reale di Carmignano DOC
    • Vin Santo di Carmignano DOC
    • Chianti Classico DOCG
    • Vin Santo del Chianti Classico DOC
    • Chianti DOCG and its 7 subzones
    • Vin Santo del Chianti DOC
    • Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG
  10. Name the important appellation in the inland Eastern area of Toscana
    Cortona DOC
  11. Name the important appellations in the inland Southern area of Toscana
    • Brunello di Montalcino DOCG
    • Rosso di Montalcino DOC
    • Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG
    • Rosso di Montepulciano DOC
    • Vin Santo di Montepulciano DOC
  12. Name the wines in Montecarlo DOC
    • Bianco
    • Rosso
    • Vin Santo: white and pink
    • Varietals: Vermentino, Sauvignon, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  13. Name the grapes used in Montecarlo Bianco
    Trebbiano: 30-60% plus 3+ Semillion, Sauvignon Blac, Roussanne, Pinot Grigio, Pinot Bianco, Vermentino
  14. Name the grapes used in Montecarlo Rosso
    • 50-75%: Sangiovese
    • 15-40%: Canaiolo, Merlot, Syrah
    • 10-30%: Ciliegiolo, Colorino, Malvasia Nera di Brindisi/Lecce, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc
    • Riserva: min 24
  15. Who were the Guelphi and Ghibellini?
    • Conflicting political factions during the High Middle Ages
    • Firenzi: Guelfi (Guelphs) supported the Pope
    • Siena: Ghibellines supported the Holy Roman Emperor
  16. Who was Cosimo Villifranchi?
    Florentine physician and scholar who published Oenologia Toscana in the 1700s
  17. When was the Accademia dei Georgofili founded in Firenze?
  18. Who ruled Toscana after the fall of the Roman Empire?
    Ostrogoths then Byzantines then Lombards
  19. Who was Giacomo Tachis?
    Enologist of the cousins (members of the Antinori family) of Marchese (Marquis) Mario Incisa della Roccetta, who started Sassicaia.
  20. When was the first official vintage of Sassicaia?
    • 1968: released in 1972 and praised by wine critic Luigi Veronelli; worldwide acclaim in the late 1970s
    • Gave birth to the Super-Tuscans
  21. T or F? Sassicaia was initially released as Vino da Tavola
    • True: it remained so until 1994
    • The first vintage was 1968 which was released in 1972
  22. Name the only appellation granted for a single estate wine in Italy
    • The Bolgheri Sassicaia sub-zone of the Bolgheri DOC was created in 1994
    • The sub-zone was elevated to its own DOC in 2013
  23. What grapes are used to make Sassicaia?
    • Cabernet Sauvignon: min 80%
    • Min total/oak age: 24/18
    • Always made with 85% Cabernet Sauvignon/15% Cabernet Franc
  24. Describe the Bolgheri DOC
    • Created in 1983 for white and rose wines only
    • Estates, encouraged by Sassicaia's success, transformed the area into a promising district for fine red wine
    • DOC modified in 1994 to include red wine
    • Most whites today are Vermentino
  25. Name 6 Super Tuscan estates other than Sassicaia
    • Grattamacco
    • Tenuta dell'Ornellaia
    • Le Macchiole
    • Michele Satta
    • Ca' Marcanda
    • Guado al Tasso
  26. T or F? Very little white wine is produced in Bolgheri today
    True: Most is varietal Vermentino
  27. Name the 3 appellations in the Val di Cornia
    • Suvereto
    • Val di Cornia
    • Val di Cornia Rosso
  28. Name the grapes typically used in Bolgheri red wines
    • Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, with small amounts of Petit Verdot, Syrah, and Sangiovese
    • Rosso: cannot be released before Sep 1 of year after vintage
    • Rosso Superiore: min 24/12 months total/oak
  29. Describe the Suvereto DOCG
    • Former sub-zone of Val di Cornia DOC
    • Cannot be released before June 1 V+2
    • Riservas aged 24/18
    • Rosso: Red blend based on Cabernet Sauvignon and/or Merlot
    • Varietals: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sangiovese
  30. Describe the Val di Cornia Rosso DOCG
    • Same area as Val di Cornia DOC
    • Cannot be released before May 1 V+2
    • Riservas aged 24/18
    • Rosso: Red blend based on Sangiovese (min 40%) and Cabernet Sauvignon and/or Merlot (max 60%)
  31. Describe the wines of Montecucco DOC
    • Rosso: based on Sangiovese
    • Rosso Riserva: min 12/6 oak/bottle age
    • Rosato: based on Sangiovese and/or Ciliegiolo
    • Bianco: based on Trebbiano and/or Vermentino
    • Varietal: Vermentino
    • Other: Vin Santo
  32. Describe the wines of Montecucco Sangiovese DOCG
    • Separated from Montalcino by Orcia River
    • 25 MGAs
    • Sangiovese: min 90%
    • Age: min 12/4 oak/bottle age
    • Riserva: min 24/6 oak/bottle age; min 13.5% abv
  33. Describe the wines of Morellino di Scansano DOCG
    • Most well known wine of the Southern Maremma
    • Sangiovese (aka Morellino): Min 85%
    • Max 15% of Alicante (aka Cannonau), Ciliegiolo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah
    • Riserva: 24/12 total/oak age
  34. Describe the soils of Morellino di Scansano DOCG
    • West: silt loam or sandy loam derived from sandstone
    • East: clay loam with limestone and shale
  35. Describe the wines of Maremma Toscana DOC
    • Elevated from IGT to DOC in 2011
    • Covers entire province of Grosseto
    • Bianco blend: Trebbiano and/or Vermentino based
    • Rosato blend: Sangiovese and/or Ciliegiolo based
    • Rosso blend: Sangiovese based
    • Varietals: based on local and international grapes
    • Other: Vin Santo, novello, spumante, vendemmia tardiva, passito
  36. Describe the (poor but mineral rich) soils of Elba
    • Volcanic granite & porphyry
    • Sedimentary limestone
    • Clay and gravel
    • Metamorphic gneiss and schist
  37. Define insula vini ferax
    Pliny the Elder described Elba as "the island fertile (abundant) of wine"
  38. Describe the wines of Elba
    • known for sweet passito
    • dry whites and reds drunk by summer tourists
  39. Describe the wines of Elba Aleatico Passito DOCG
    • Sweet red from 100% Aleatico
    • Air-dried at least 10 days until at least 300 g/l sugar
    • Min 12% abv (usually 13%-14% abv)
  40. Who revived Carmignano from being subsumed into Chianti Montalbano?
    • Count Ugo Contini Bonacossi
    • Carmignano granted DOC in 1975
  41. Describe the wines of Carmignano DOCG
    • Sangiovese: min 50% (most are 70%-90%)
    • Cabernet: 10%-20%
    • Canaiolo: max 20%
    • Other red grapes: max 10% (including Merlot)
    • White grapes: max 10% (Trebbiano, Malvasia, Canaiolo Bianco)
    • Reds cannot be released before June 1 V+2 and must be aged min 8 months in oak or chestnut
    • Riserva: 36/12 total/oak or chestnut (oak more common)
  42. Describe the wines of Barco Reale di Carmignano DOCG
    • Rosso and rosato (known as Vin Ruspo, made by salasso)
    • Second wine of Carmignano using same grapes and proportions as Carmignano but has no aging requirements
    • Carmignano DOCG can be declassified as Barco Reale DOC
  43. Describe the wines of Vin Santo di Carmignano DOC
    • White: based on Trebbiano and Malvasia
    • Occhio di Pernice (pink): based on Sangiovese
    • Air-dried 4-6 months
    • Dry to sweet
    • Age: min 36
    • Riserva: min 48
  44. How were the boundaries of Chianti Storico established?
    Firenze established a military/political jurisdiction called Lega del Chianti (League of Chianti) in 1384 to control this area in its dispute with Siena
  45. How did Gallo Nero (Black Rooster) become the symbol for Chianti Classico?
    Medieval legend; adopted in 1924 by 33 producers in Chianti Storico to combat the fraud of "vino all'uso di Chianti"; this consorzio officially formalized the boundaries in 1927
  46. Define "vino all'uso di Chianti
    • Wine in the style of Chianti
    • Term for wines produced with the same grapes and in the same manner as Chianti Storico but made outside the historic Chianti area in the 20th century
  47. When were the boundaries of Chianti defined?
    1932: Chianti Classico and 6 other Chianti subzones
  48. T or F? When the Chianti DOC was created in 1967 it adopted the Ricasoli blending formula
    True: Sangiovese (50-80%), Canaiolo (10-30%), Malvasia and Trebbiano (10-30%)
  49. T or F? When Chianti DOCG was elevated in 1984, the Chianti Classico subzone only required 2% white grapes
  50. T or F? When Chianti Classico DOCG was elevated in 1996, Chianti Classico could be 100% Sangiovese
  51. T or F? In 2006, white grapes were banned from Chianti Classico
  52. Name the current grapes that may be used in Chianti Classico
    • Sangiovese: min 80% (many use 100%)
    • Auxiliary red grapes: max 20% (Canaiolo, Colorino, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon)
    • Age: 12 to 24 months in oak
  53. Name the 4 communes included in Chianti Classico
    • Greve in Chianti (in Firenze)
    • Radda in Chianti (in Siena, as are the following)
    • Gaiole in Chianti
    • Castellina in Chianti 

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  54. Name 4 unofficial sub-zones of Chianti Classico
    • Monti
    • Lamole
    • Ruffoli
    • Panzano
  55. Name the 5 communes only partially included in Chianti Classico
    • Castelnuovo Berardenga (in Siena)
    • S. Casciano in Val di Pesa (in Firenze, as are the following)
    • Tavernalle Val di Pesa
    • Barberino Val d'Elsa
    • Poggibonsi
  56. Name the boundaries of Chianti Classico
    • North: Firenze and the Arno river basin
    • East: Monti del Chianti
    • South: Siena
    • West: Elsa Valley
  57. Name the 3 small rivers within Chianti Classico
    • Flow north into Arno river: Greve and Pesa rivers
    • Flow south into Umbrone river: Arbia river
  58. Pronounce Canaiolo
  59. What did Baron Bettino Ricasoli contribute to Chianti?
    • The "Iron Baron" ("il Barone di ferro") was the first prime minister of the Kingdom of Italy
    • Formalized the "Chianti formula" after experimentation
    • Wines for aging: Sangiovese + Canaiolo
    • Wines for early consumption: Sangiovese (70%), Canaiolo (15%), Malvasia (15%)
    • Governo all'uso Toscano: recommended old practice to make wines more approachable and ready to drink sooner
  60. Define Governo all'uso Toscano
    • Winemaking technique: invented in the 14th century to encourage MLC; adds the juice of pressed dried grapes into wines that had just completed fermentation to restart fermentation
    • Rare today: but if performed must be indicated on the label
  61. Are the eastern or western hills of Chianti Classico higher?
    • Eastern hills: 1600-2000 feet
    • Western hills: lower and gentler
    • Best vineyards lie between 1000-1600 feet on south-facing slopes
  62. T or F? Most Chianti Classico soils consist of galestro alternating with alberese and sandstone
    • True: Sandstone is known locally as macigno (boulder)
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  63. T or F? Chianti Classico has a Mediterranean climate
    False: Continental with moderate Mediterranean influences; Annual rainfall is 25-35 inches mainly in spring and late autumn
  64. Categorize Chianti Classico wine styles
    • Higher sites: Elegant and perfumed; high acid, firm tannins
    • Lower sites: Fuller and richer; less acidity and soft tannins
  65. T or F? Chianti Classico DOCG has one of Italy's lowest maximum yields per hectare and per vineyards
  66. Name the 3 categories of wines produced in Chianti Classico
    • Gran Selezione: introduced in 2013 for 2010 vintage onward; min 13% abv, min 30/3 total/bottle age; lab analysis, tasting approval
    • Riserva: min 12.5% abv, min 24/3 total/bottle age; long lived
    • Annata (vintage): younger and more approachable, min 12% abv, released after Oct 1 V+1
  67. T or F? Vin Santo is not produced within Chianti Classico
    False: Vin Santo del Chianti Classico DOC is min 60% Trebbiano and/or Malvasia (secco, abboccato, amabile); Occhio di Pernice is min 80% Sangiovese (dolce); released after Nov 1 V+3
  68. T or F? Chianti is twice as big as Chianti Classico
    True: Chianti has 7 sub-zones
  69. Describe the 7 Chianti sub-zones
    • Most substantial: Rufina, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Senesi
    • Others: Montalbano, Montespertoli, Colline Pisane, Colli Aretini
  70. T or F? Chianti is one of Italy's largest, most productive, and most exported appellations
  71. Compare Chianti with Chianti Classico
    Chianti has less strict production requirements and is a completely different winegrowing region
  72. Describe Chianti wine regulations
    • Sangiovese: min 70%
    • Auxiliary grapes: max 30% (Canaiolo, Colorino, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon are most common blending partners)
    • Cabernet S/F: max 15%
    • White grapes: max 10%
    • Most rosso can be released as of Mar 1 V+1 (age ~4 months)
    • Montespertoli: ERD Jun 1 V+1
    • Colli Fiorentini and Rufina and Superiore: ERD Sep 1 V+1
  73. T or F? Chianti subzones have different wine regulations than Chianti DOCG
    • True: Subzones have lower max yields
    • Colli Senesi: mandates different red grape percentages and does not allow white grapes
    • Montespertoli: wines can be released as of Jun 1 V+1
    • Colli Fiorentini and Rufina and Superiore: ERD Sep 1 V+1
  74. Describe Chianti Riserva wine regulations
    • Applies to Chianti and its subzones
    • Min 11.5% abv: Chianti, Colli Aretini, Colline Pasane, Montalbano)
    • Min 12% abv: Colli Fiorentini, Colli Senesi, Rufina, Montespertoli, Chianti Riserva, Superiore
    • Min 12.5% abv: Subzone Riserva (execpt Colli Senesi)
    • Min 13% abv: Colli Senesi Riserva
    • Min 24 (Jan 1 V+3): Chianti Riserva
    • Min 24/6: Colli Fiorentini and Colli Rufina (age: total/barrel)
    • Min 24/8/4: Colli Senesi (age: total/barrel/bottle)
  75. Describe Chianti Colli Senesi wine regulations
    • Sangiovese: min 75% (5% higher)
    • Cabernet S/F: max 10% (5% lower)
    • White grapes are not allowed as of the 2016 vintage
  76. Describe Chianti Superiore wine regulations
    • Lower yields
    • Min 12% abv
    • Released after Sep 1 V+1
  77. T or F? Chianti Classico is NOT a subzone of Chianti
    True: both are independent appellations
  78. Name and locate the smallest but most prestigious Chianti subzone
    • Chianti Rufina: north east of Chianti Classico at the foothills of the Northern Apennines; crossed by the Sieve River which forms Valdisieve (Sieve Valley)
    • Colli Rufina has its own consorzio
  79. T or F? Vin Santo del Chianti DOC covers the same area as the Chianti DOCG
    True: white wine based on Trebbiano and/or Malvasia and the pink Occhio di Pernice wine based on Sangiovese
  80. What is the aging requirement for Vin Santo del Chianti DOCG?
    min 48; each sub-zone can use its own designation
  81. T or F? The Etruscans were the first to settle on the San Gimignano hilltop
    True; the town looks as it did in the 1100s-1200s AD
  82. Name the only white DOCG in Toscana
    • Vernaccia di San Gimignano
    • 1966: first DOC in Italy
    • 1993: DOCG with stricter production standards
  83. T or F? Vernaccia di San Gimignano was traditionally fermented as if it were a red grape
    True: since the 1980s, clean, light, fresh; since the 1990s, elegant, expressive, and mineral
  84. Describe San Gimignano
    • Overlaps the NW part of Chianti Colli Senesi
    • Hills average 650-1300 feet
    • Rain in spring and late autumn, annual average 27 inches
    • Mediterranean climate
    • Soil: yellow sand, yellow clay, calcareous marls, atop compact clays
  85. Describe Vernaccia di San Gimignano wine
    • Vernaccia di San Gimignano: min 85% (many are 100%)
    • Riserva: min 12.5% abv, min 11/3 total/bottle age
    • 3 Styles: unoaked and fruity; rich (due to small barrel fermentation and aging); elegant, flinty, and restrained
  86. Name the eastern appellations of Toscana
    • Cortona: Etruscan city since 8th century BC; on border with Umbria and Lake Trasimeno; continental climate with Mediterranean influence; sandstone, marl, schist, fluvial deposits (clays and sands)
    • Valdarno di Sopra
    • Valdichiana
  87. Describe the wines of Cortona DOC
    • Elegant, full-bodied, age-worthy
    • Red: Syrah, Merlot, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon
    • White: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Grechetto
    • Vin Santo White: Trebbiano and/or Grechetto and/or Malvasia
    • Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice: Sangiovese and/or Malvasia Nera
    • Riserva: 24/12/4 (total/oak/bottle)
  88. Name the 2 appellations of southern Toscana
    • Montalcino: 25 miles south of Siena; quality wine since 1500s
    • Montepulciano: east of Montalcino; renowned wine since middle ages
  89. Name the rivers that surround Montalcino
    • Asso (east), Orcia (south), Ombrone (west and north)
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  90. Name the sub-zones of Montalcino
    • There are no official sub-zones but Sangiovese expresses itself differently in 6 areas named after hamlets
    • Torrenieri: leaner wines with firmer tannins
    • Tavernelle: great depth, complexity, and longevity
    • Camigliano: more power/concentration, less acidity/complexity
    • Castelnuovo dell'Abate: some of the most distinctive Brunellos
    • Sant'Angelo in Colle: structured, powerful, but refined
    • Sant'Angelo Scalo: more approachable, fuller-bodied, higher alcohol, less complex, lower acidity
  91. Define Via Francigena
    Road that bisects Toscana from Liguria to Lazio
  92. Name 3 innovations Clemente Santi was responsible for
    • Brunello was one of the main grapes he cultivated
    • Monoculture (vines)
    • Longer maceration and fermentation times for red wines
    • Grandson was Ferrucio Biondi (Biondi-Santi winery)
  93. What was the first documented appearance of Brunello on a wine label?
    1869: "Vino rosso scelto (brunello) 1865 vintage" won a silver medal at the agrigultural fair of Montepulciano
  94. What is Ferruccio Biondi known for?
    • Took over Greppo estate in 1885
    • Identified best (fruit quality and disease resistance) Brunello vines and used cuttings for massal selection
    • Destemmed the grapes to avoid astringent tannins
    • Used large Slavonian oak casks when ageing wines for a long time
    • Sold his red wines as "Brunello" in the late 1880s
    • His son was named Tancredi
  95. What is Tancredi Biondi known for?
    • Took over Greppo estate in the 1920s
    • When phylloxera destroyed most vineyards in Montalcino in the late 1920s he formed a cooperative named "Cantina Sociale Biondi Santi e C." which remained active until 1944
  96. When did Brunello di Montalcino become a DOC/G?
    • DOC in 1966: disciplinare based on practices adopted by Tancredi Bondi-Santi
    • DOCG in 1980: this increased its prestige and by early 1990s demand exceeded supply so more Sangiovese was planted
    • Expanded/heterogeneous zone of production resulted in variations in wine style
    • 2007-2008-2009: Brunellogate (Brunellopoli) - 7 producers committed fraud and were fined and wines declassified to IGT
    • Due to the fraud, a vote to change the no blending rule was held but 96% of producers voted against the change so it's still 100% Sangiovese
  97. Describe the Brunello di Montalcino DOCG
    • 100% Sangiovese
    • Total/oak/bottle age: 48/24/4 months (ERD Jan 1 V+5)
    • Riserva: 60/24/6 (ERD Jan 1 V+6)
  98. Describe the Rosso di Montalcino DOCG
    • Second wine; fruitier and more approachable than Brunello
    • May declassify Brunello to Rosso di Montalcino
    • 100% Sangiovese
    • ERD Sep 1 V+1
    • No mandatory oak ageing
  99. T or F? Montepulciano declined in the 1800s and by 1900 its ancient reputation was forgotten
    True: popularity of Chianti and Piemonte wines contributed to its decline; elevation to DOCG in 1980 led to a new generation of producers who improved vini/viti practices which revived its reputation
  100. What is Adamo Fanetti known for?
    Acclaim for his Vino Nobile di Montepulciano at the 1933 Siena wine fair; this kept the name Montepulciano alive
  101. Name the 2 sub-areas of Montepulciano
    • West: hills around Montepulciano (town)
    • East: hills around Valiano (hamlet)
  102. Is Montepulciano or Montalcino cooler?
    The climate of Montepulciano is more continental with slightly cooler average temperatures than Montalcino
  103. T or F? Sandy soils are characteristic of Montepulciano
    True: sandy soils are more prevalent on sites at higher altitude; soils are also more homogeneous than Chianti Classico or Montalcino
  104. Describe the wine regulations of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
    • Prugnolo Gentile: min 70%; max 30% can be any other authorized grape in Toscana; white grapes max 5%
    • In practice: 80-90% Prugnolo Gentile plus Canaiolo, Colorino, Mammolo, Merlot
    • Min 12.5% abv
    • Total-wood: min 24/12
    • Riserva: min 13% abv, total/wood/age: 36/12/6
  105. Describe the wine regulations of Vin Santo di Montepulciano DOC
    • Min 70%: Malvasia and/or Trebbiano and/or Grechetto Bianco (aka Pulcinculo)
    • Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice: based on Prugnolo Gentile
  106. Describe the wine regulations of Rosso di Montepulciano
    • Same blending rules as Vino Nobile di Montepulciano with ERD Mar 1 V+1
    • Second wine of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano (softer and more youthful)
    • Vino Nobile di Montepulciano may be declassified as Rosso di Montepulciano
  107. T or F? Rosso and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano wines are made with the Montepulciano grape
    • False: They are based on Prugnolo Gentile (Sangiovese)
    • Do not confuse these wines with Montepulciano d'Abruzzo
  108. T or F? The grape Montepulciano is related to the town of Montepulciano
    False: the grape is widely planted in Abruzzo and March but has no relationship with the town of Montepulciano
  109. What protects the Montalcino growing area from bad weather?
    • a) Lake Trasimeno
    • b) The Maremma
    • c) The Island of Elba
    • d) Mt Amiata
    • d) Mt Amiata
  110. The Carmignano winegrowing area is almost entirely overlapped by which appellation?
    Chianti Montalbano
  111. What is the signature grape of Cortona?
  112. In which Tuscan winegrowing area were Cabernet grapes first planted?
  113. Which area in Tuscano does not have galestro soils?
  114. T or F? San Gimignano is within the boundaries of Chianti and Chianti Colli Senesi DOCG
  115. T or F? Cortona was a powerful Roman city
    False: Cortona was a powerful Etruscan city in the 8th century BC (700s BC)
  116. Name some appellations in Toscano with MGAs
    • Ansonica Costa dell'Argentario DOC: Isola del Giglio MGA
    • Sovana DOC: 72 MGAs
    • Bianco di Pitigliano DOC: 68 MGAs
    • Montecucco Sangiovese DOCG: 25 MGAs
  117. What is the difference between Aleatico and Aglianico grapes?
    • Aleatico: red grape native to Toscano; also grown in Lazio and Puglia; related to Moscato Bianco (Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains); known for sweet aromatic red wine
    • Aglianico: red grape native to Campania; also grown in Basilicata; high acid, high tannin, prominent minerality; one of Italy's 3 greatest grape varieties
  118. Name three appellations with "second wines"
    • Brunello di Montalcino DOCG: Rosso di Montalcino DOC
    • Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG: Rosso di Montepulciano DOC
    • Carmignano DOCG: Barco Reale di Carmignano DOC
  119. Name the main native/traditional grapes of Toscana
    • White: Trebbiano Toscano, Malvasia Bianca Lunga, Vernaccia di San Gimignano, Vermentino, Ansonica (Inzolia)
    • Red: Sangiovese, Canaiolo (Nero), Ciliegiolo, Colorino (del Valdarno), Aleatico
  120. Name the main international grapes of Toscana
    • Red: Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah
    • White: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Grigio (all minor)
  121. Name the tradeoffs of growing Sangiovese
    • Advantages: drought- and wind-resistant
    • Disadvantages: buds early, ripens late, susceptible to bunch rot and oidium (powdery mildew)
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  122. Describe Vernaccia
    • Generic name indicating a group of unrelated grape varieties
    • Most important are Vernaccia di San Gimignano and Vernaccia di Oristano
  123. T or F? Vin Santo from Toscana and Vino Santo from Trentino are sweet white wines
    False: While Vino Santo is always sweet, Vin Santo may be secco (least common), abboccato, amabile, or dolce
Card Set
Wine Scholar Guild Italian Wine Scholar Toscana