Chem I

  1. the spontaneous emission of radiation accompanying a nuclear reaction
  2. a radioactive isotope
  3. a type of radioactive emission consisting of electrons.  Stream of particles repelled by negative charged electrode and attracted to positive charge
    Beta radiation
  4. type of radioactive emission consisting of a stream of high energy photons.  Unaffected by either positive or negatively charged electrodes
    Gamma radiation
  5. a nuclear reaction that converts a proton into a neutron plus an ejected positron
    positron emission
  6. a type of radioactive emission; a helium nucleus.  Consists of a stream of electrons repelled by positively charged electrodes and attracted to negatively charges.  Have mass to charge ratio identifying them as helium nuclei 42He2+.
    Alpha radiation
  7. a general term for both protons and neutrons
  8. a nuclear reaction in which a proton in the nucleus captures an inner-shell electron and is thereby converted into a neutron
    Electron capture
  9. showed that there were three common types of radiation with markedly different properties, alpha, beta, and gamma
    Ernest Rutheford (1871-1937) in 1897
  10. electromagnetic radiation
    Radiant energy
  11. the range of different kinds of electromagnetic radiation
    Electromagnetic spectrum
  12. the number of wave maxima that pass by a fixed point per unit of time
  13. the length of a wave from one maximum to the next
  14. a waves height measured from the midpoint between peak and trough
  15. an equation that accounts for all lines in the hydrogen spectrum
    Balmer-Rydberg equation
  16. the ejection of electrons from a metal on exposure to radiant energy.Photons – The smallest possible amount of radiant energy; a quantum
    Photoelectric effect
  17. (h) 6.626 x 10-34J x s; a fundamental physical constant that relates energy to frequency, E=hv.
    Planck’s postulate
  18. the amount of energy necessary to eject an electron from a metal
    Work function
  19. the smallest possible amount of radiant energy
  20. an equation that relates mass, wavelength, and velocity, m=h/lv
    De Broglie hypothesis
  21. a model of atomic structure that concentrates on an electrons wave-like properties.
    Quantum mechanical model
  22. the position and the velocity of an electron can never both be known beyond a certain level of certainty.
    Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
  23. a grouping of orbitals according to principle quantum number
  24. a grouping of orbitals by angular-momentum quantum number
  25. a region where a wave has zero amplitude
  26. (ms) a variable that describes the spin of an electron, either +1/2 or – ½.
    Spin quantum number
  27. No two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers.
    Pauli exclusion principle
  28. a set of rules that guides the electron filling order of orbitals in atoms.
    Aufbau principle
  29. the lowest-energy electron configuration of an atom.
    Ground-state electron configuration
  30. having the same energy level.
  31. If two or more orbitals with the same energy are available, one electron goes into each until all are half full.  The electrons in each of the singly occupied orbitals must have the same value for their spin quantum number.
    Hund’s rule
  32. an element in groups 1A or 2A, in which s orbitals are filled.
    s-block elements
  33. an element in groups 3A-8A, in which p orbitals are filled.
    p-block elements
  34. a transition metal orbital in which d orbitals are filled.
    d-block elements
  35. a lanthanide or actinide element in which f orbitals are filled.
    f-block elements
  36. What fills up after 1s2?
  37. What fills up after2s2?
  38. What fills up after2p6?
  39. What fills up after 3s2?
  40. What fills up after 3p6?
  41. What fills up after 4s2?
  42. Electrons are pulled from 4s orbital before what?
Card Set
Chem I
Chemistry Nomenclature and Concepts