CDS 501 Week 5

  1. Single Subject Research Designs
    • evaluated as separate individuals, not a group  
    • detailed analysis of behavior under controlled conditions 
    • series of measurements of DV over time 
    • each participant receives all level of IV
  2. Population
    all persons of interest for a study
  3. Sample
    people who actually participate in a study
  4. Parameters
    numbers that come from observation of a population
  5. Statistics
    numbers that come from observation of a sample
  6. Representative Sample
    • good match for characteristics of the general population
    • select subjects that represent everyone so that we can make inferences from the study (inductive reasoning)
  7. Unbiased Sample
    all members have an equal chance of being selected
  8. Simple Random Sampling
    • a drawing 
    • equal chance of being assigned to either control or experimental group
    • even distribution of participants within the sample
  9. Systematic Random Sampling
    • establish sampling interval 
    • select subjects according to the number representing the sampling interval
  10. Stratified Random Sampling
    • divide possible subjects into groups 
    • select people from subgroup
    • make a sample that represents the diversity in the population being studied
  11. Cluster Sampling
    • from a large population 
    • usually regional studies 
    • ID predefined groups from a wide area range (all kindergarten classes in the district)
  12. Purposive Sampling
    • get perspective of individual, unique experiences 
    • select participants considered to be the best source for particular issue 
    • goal not to generalize findings to larger population
  13. Convenience Sampling
    • choose subjects from available pool of people 
    • align as closely as possible 
    • major source of bias
  14. Sample Sensitivity
    • ability of study to detect significant treatment effects when present 
    • too low and the treatment is ineffective
  15. Subject Matching
    attempt to match two groups on as many extraneous variables as possible
  16. Validity
    • does a test measure what it says it will measure?
    • the test is made for a purpose
  17. Reliability
    • are the results consistent and repeatable
    • the test is consistent under certain circumstances
    • test may be reliable only when child is attentive
  18. Face Validity
    person's judgement on how well a test appears to accomplish its purpose
  19. Content Validity
    established by a panel of experts in particular content area
  20. Criterion Validity
    comparing a new test/measure to an existing one that serves as a standard of comparison
  21. Concurrent Validity
    • same subjects take new test and established test close together or at the same time
    • *type of criterion validity
  22. Predictive Validity
    • predict how participants will perform when  reevaluated at a later time 
    • did scores on the old test successfully predict their future performance?
  23. Construct Validity
    • patterns or relationships among test items 
    • relationship between test items and external patterns of comparison 
    • how we expect kids to respond to test items
    • ex) kids know 50 words by 18 months
  24. Inter-observer/ Interater Reliability
    • two different examiners use procedure to test the same group of participants around the same  time 
    • the two different examiners should achieve similar results
  25. Test-retest Reliability
    subjects tested by same examiner two times and the results are similar
  26. Parallel Forms Reliability
    occurs after researchers have developed and administered two equivalent forms of a measure
  27. Split-half Reliability
    • test items are split in two equivalent forms 
    • scores from each form are compared

    *you don't have to look at the whole test, just look at half to compare the changes over time  
  28. Internal Validity
    • how we control for interference of extraneous variable 
    • degree to which relationship between IV and DV is observed without the influence of extraneous variables
    • Did the experimental treatments make a difference in this instance

    • *most common weakness in research studies are related to internal validity 
    • *affects the researcher's ability to show cause and effect between IV and DV
  29. External Validity
    • how comfortable we are making inferences about the general population from the results of our study 
    • can used to predict behavior 

    *it can't apply to everyone, that's why we replicate it in different settings with different populations
  30. Reactive Arrangements
    • how the setting interacts with the IV and changes the DV 
    • commonly known as Hawthorne effect: subjects behavior changes because they know they are in a study
  31. Multiple-Treatment Interference
    • how various parts of multiple treatments affect the DV 
    • likely when more than one treatment given to same group of subjects
  32. Transferability
    • how externally valid qualitative findings are
    • ability to apply results of research to multiple, similar contexts
  33. Pilot Research
    • protects internal and external validity 
    • subjects selected using preset criteria 
    • subjects receive exactly the same instruction 
    • cannot modify design
  34. Subject Selection
    are the subjects representative of the population the research is examining?
  35. Interactive Pretest
    how reactive pretest may interact with the IV and affect the DV
Card Set
CDS 501 Week 5
CDS 501