Soc 515 Quiz 1

  1. Nomothetic explanations
    A type of scientific explanation that seeks to produce a generalized understanding (ex. common causes) of classes of events
  2. Idiographic explanations
    type of scientific explanation that describes a unique set of conditions that account for the actions of a single person or set of actors at a particular time and place
  3. Deductive reasoning
    • process of reasoning in which the conclusion necessarily follows if the evidence is true
    • bottom up
    • making observations and then making theories
  4. inductive reasoning
    • reasoning process in which the conclusion goes beyond the evidence
    • top-down
    • start with a theory and look for evidence to support
  5. objectivity
    in science, the methodological condition that makes it possible for two or more people to agree on the results of an observation
  6. intersubjective testability
    a condition where two or more scientists can agree on the results of observations
  7. ecological fallacy
    incorrect use of information pertaining to an aggregate (ex. organizations) to draw inferences about the units of analysis that comprise the aggregate (ex. individual members of the organization)
  8. correlation coefficient
    • a measure of association (Pearson's r) that describes the direction and strength of a linear relationship between two variables measured at the interval or ratio level
    • the square of r represents the proportion of variance in one variable that can be predicted from the other using linear regression
  9. statistical significance
    determined using tests of statistical significance to assess the likelihood that the results of an experiment or other study could have occurred by chance
  10. exploratory research
    studies undertaken to explore a phenomenon or topic about which little is known
  11. descriptive research
    studies undertaken to collect facts about a specified population or sample, e. a public opinion poll
  12. explanatory research
    studies that investigate relationships between two or more variables, attempting to explain them in cause-and-effect terms
  13. systematic measurement error
    error from factors that systematically influence (bias) either the process of measurement or the concept of being measured. Systematic errors are consistent across measurements taken at different times or are systematically related to characteristics of the cases being measured (ie. the cultural bias of IQ tests) and thereby affect validity
  14. reactive measurement effect
    an effect whereby the process of measurement itself, resulting from people's awareness of being studied, produces changes in what is being measured
  15. social desirability effect
    a tendency of some respondents to bias their answers in the direction of socially desirable traits or attitudes, thereby endeavouring to enhance their self-esteem or make a favorable impression on the interviewer or researcher
  16. sampling frame
    • an operational definition of the population that provides the basis for drawing a sample
    • constructed by either 1) listing all cases from which a sample may be selected or 2) defining population membership by a rule that provides a basis for case selection
  17. probability sample
    sampling based on a process of random selection that gives each case in the population an equal or known chance of being included in the sample
  18. nonprobability sample
    processes of case selection other than random selection
  19. confidence interval
    a range (interval) within which a population value is estimated to lie at a specific level of confidence; used to qualify sample estimates to take into account sampling error. Ex. a researcher might say that she is 99% confident (confidence level) that the mean personal income for a population lies within plus or minus $359 of the sample mean of $18, 325 (confidence interval is $18, 684 - $17, 966)
  20. sample bias
    systematic error or bias in sample results caused by problems in executing the sampling plan, such as incomplete sampling frames and incomplete data collection (not-at-home respondents, refusals, etc)
  21. nonresponse bias
    in survey sampling, when nonrespondents (sampled individuals who don't respond or can't be contacted) differ in important ways from respondents
Card Set
Soc 515 Quiz 1
Soc 515 term quiz 1 (Oct 4)