1. The establishment & growth of a microorganism on or in a host
    an Infection
  2. refers to the policies followed by heath care workers that help prevent the spread of disease
    Infection control
  3. are those acquired in the course of medical care
    Nosocomial infections
  4. nosocomial infections has increased over the past few decades, why?
    the emergence of new diseases & an increase in organisms becoming resistant to antibiotics
  5. (Main factors that increase the chance of nosocomial infection:)

    Other patients that have diseases, visitors, contaminated food or medical equipment, the air circulation, & the medical personnel who care for the patient
  6. (Main factors that increase the chance of nosocomial infection:)

    The type of drugs the patient is taking. Although certain drugs help kill infections, they may alter the normal flora within the body or depress the immune system. This leads to a decreased resistance to other type s of hospital germs.
    Therapeutic Regimen
  7. (Main factors that increase the chance of nosocomial infection:)

    Instruments & equipment that have not been adequately cleaned & sterilized
  8. (Main factors that increase the chance of nosocomial infection:)

    Microorganisms transmitted through medical procedures if correct technique not used
  9. (The ability to resist infection depends on the following factors:)

    The very young who have immature immune systems & the elderly who have immune systems that are less efficient, both have difficulty in fighting off infection
  10. (The ability to resist infection depends on the following factors:)

    Genetic factors & congenital conditions make individuals more or less resistant to infection
  11. (The ability to resist infection depends on the following factors:)

    Inadequate nutrient intake or an over abundance of intake (obesity), decrease resistance to infection
    Nutrition status
  12. (The ability to resist infection depends on the following factors:)

    Physiological & psychological stress increase certain hormone (cortisone) production, thereby lowering resistance to infection
  13. (The ability to resist infection depends on the following factors:)

    Lack of sleep and/or exercise decrease blood circulation & lowers resistance to infection
    Inadequate rest & exercise
  14. (The ability to resist infection depends on the following factors:)

    Those with chronic conditions such as diabetes & heart disease are at a greater risk for infection, as are those not immunized
    Health history
  15. (The ability to resist infection depends on the following factors:)

    Persons with broken skin, burns, or who have had trauma are more susceptible to infection, as are those who have a suppressed immune system due to medication
    Inadequate defenses
  16. (The ability to resist infection depends on the following factors:)

    Smoking, drug & alcohol use, & certain sexual practices all affect the ability of the body to fight off infection
    Personal habits
  17. is a tiny form of life found in the environment & within all living things (plants, animals, & humans).
    Microorganism (Live in the air, on land, & in the water)
  18. Microorganisms that cause disease are called
  19. Main types of pathogens
    • - Bacteria
    • - Viruses
    • - Fungi
    • - Parasites
    • - Prions
  20. Microscopic one-celled organisms with a typical nucleus
  21. bacteria that can survive in an oxygen environment
  22. bacteria that cannot survive in an oxygen environment
  23. Beneficial bacteria
    Probiotics: (lactobacillus & bifidobacterium)
  24. - Tuberculosis (TB)
    - Streptococcal (strep infections)
    - Staphylococcal (wound infections)
    - Salmonella (food poisoning)
    - Gonorrhea & syphilis (venereal diseases)
    - Tetanus (lockjaw)
    Bacterial Diseases
  25. Smallest, microscopic non-cellular organisms
  26. Do viruses contain DNA, RNA, or Both?
    Either DNA or RNA
  27. Must invade a host cell to survive & reproduce
  28. process of virus
    viral particle (virion) attaches to host cell & inserts its own genetic information. Then redirects host cell to produce new viruses.
  29. - Common cold (rhinovirus)
    - Influenza (flu)
    - Measles (rubeola)
    - Mumps (parotitis)
    - Rubella (German measles)
    - Hepatitis A, B, C, D, & E
    - HIV (causes AIDS)
    - HSV I (cold sores)
    - HSV II (genital herpes
    Viral Diseases
  30. Multicellular (molds) or one-celled organisms (yeasts) with a nucleus & membrane-bound organelles
  31. Mold:
    Aspergillus (allergic reactions & asthma)
    Candida Albicans (vaginal/intestinal yeast infection or in the mouth - "thrush")
    Histoplasmosis (fungus contracted from bird & bat droppings & in soil)
    Tinea (ringworm) & tinea pedis (athlete’s foot)
    Fungal Diseases
  32. Organisms that live on or in a host organism and get their food from or at the expense of the host
  33. three main classes of parasites that can cause disease in humans:
    • - Protozoa
    • - Helminths
    • - Ectoparasites
  34. One-celled complex microorganisms that have mobility through:
    Pseudopod formation – part of cell presses forward & the rest follows
    Flagella – whip-like projections (like a tail)
    Cilia – small, delicate hair-like projections
  35. - Malaria (fever; spread by mosquitoes)
    - Giardiasis (intestinal; contaminated H2O & feces)
    - Toxoplasmosis (“Cat Scratch Fever”; flu-like symptoms; dangerous in pregnancy; animal feces & contaminated food & H2O )
    Protozoa Diseases
  36. Parasitic worms:
    - Flatworms & roundworms
    - Found primarily in human intestinal tract
  37. - Enterobiasis (pinworm; feces)
    - Trichinosis (contaminated H2O & undercooked meat such as pork, bear, horse, venison)
    - Diphyllobothrium latum (tapeworm; contaminated food or H2O
    types of helminths diseases
  38. Organisms such as ticks, fleas, lice, and mites that attach or burrow into the skin and remain there for relatively long periods of time (e.g., weeks to months)
  39. - Scabies (mites - itching & rash)
    - Lice (head & pubic – the “crabs”)
    - Lyme disease (ticks – rash, muscle aches, fever)
    ectoparasite diseases
  40. Mutated form of a normal protein found mostly in the central nervous system (Do not contain DNA or RNA)
  41. - Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) which are fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals & humans
    - Creutzfeldt-Jakob ("Mad-Cow") disease is the most common disease resulting from infection with prions. It is transmitted to humans by eating infected meat.
    Prion Diseases
  42. ability to cause disease
  43. ability to grow & multiply with speed
  44. ability to enter tissues
  45. attraction to a particular host
  46. A "_____" or environment for the microbes to live & multiply - living or not: human, animal, plant, water, food earth.
  47. A person who serves as a reservoir is called a "_____".
  48. 4 means of infection transmission are?
    • 1. Direct contact
    • 2. Indirect contact
    • 3. Droplet contact
    • 4. Airborne route
  49. an infected person directly touches another or their blood & body fluids (shaking hands, kissing, sexual intercourse, or being injected with their blood)
    direct contact
  50. a person touches objects (fomites) contaminated by an infected person (clothing, dishes, utensils, surgical dressings or instruments)
    indirect contact
  51. pathogens come in contact with the eyes, nose or mouth of a person through a cough, sneeze, & when talking (can travel 3-5 feet!)
    droplet contact
  52. a person inhales residue from evaporated droplets of diseased microorganisms
    airborne route
  53. are protein chemical markers that identify cells.
  54. are proteins produced by B cells (a particular type of lymphocyte/WBC) in response to foreign antigens.
  55. is when our body produces its own antibodies.
    active acquired immunity
  56. is when antibodies are received from another person or animal.
    passive acquired immunity
Card Set
Unit 5 Infection Control