1. Darwin's observations
    • -Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which seem to be heritable.
    • -A population can produce far more offspring than can survive to produce offspring of their own.
    • -Species generally suit their enviroments.
  2. Darwin's inferences
    • -He reasoned that individuals with inherited traits that are best suited to the local environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than less fit individuals.
    • -Over many generations, a higher and higher proportion of individuals will have the advantageous traits.
    • -Evolution occurs as the unequal reproductive success of individuals adapts the population to its environment.
  3. Describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data
    Discovery science...sometimes called descriptive science
  4. Often in the form of recorded descriptions rather than numerical descriptions
    Qualitative data
  5. Generally recorded as measurements
    Quantitative data
  6. The observations and inductions of discovery science stimulate us to seek natural causes and explanations for those observations
    Hypothesis-based science
  7. Reasoning from a set of specific observations to reach a general conclusion
    Inductive reasoning
  8. Logic flows from general to specific
    Deductive reasoning
  9. An experiment that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group
    Controlled experiment
  10. What is a common misconception about controlled experiments?
    That scientists control the experimental environment to keep everything constant except the one variable being tested. But that's impossible in field research and not realistic even in highly regulated laboratory environments. Researchers usually "control" unwanted variables not by eliminating them through environmental regulation, but by canceling their effects by using control groups.
  11. What is the goal of science?
    To understand natural phenomena
  12. Generally applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose
Card Set
test 1