1. Duchy of Milan
    one of the 5 major competitibe states in italy. the nothermorst.
  2. Republic of Florence
    One of the 5 competitive states in italy.
  3. Republic of Venice
    one of the 5 major competitive staes in italy.
  4. Papal States
    one of the 5 major competitive states in italy
  5. Kingdom of Napels
    one of the 5 most competitive states in Italy
  6. popolo
    • Florence.
    • 4 distinguishal social groups.
    • old and rich,
    • new and rich merchants capitalist and banders
    • middle burgher
    • little people. lower ecomonic classes.
  7. Ciompi Revolt
    • revolt that resulted from a combination of three factors: the geuiding between of the old and new rich
    • social anrachy that resulted from thee black death
    • and the collapse of the banking houses of bardi and peruzzi that left poor economically vulnerable.
  8. Cosimo de Medici
    • true stability did not return to florence until he got power.
    • astute stesman,
    • goverend by signora,
    • able to keep coucillors loyal to him in signoria
  9. Signoria
    • florence was goberend by a counti lof 6 then 8
    • the men were chosen from most powerful guilds
  10. Lorenzo de Medici
    decidedto hire a stongman called a podesta to maintain lasw and order. he was required to do anything to keep business flowing.
  11. condottieri
    podestas operated through merenary armies wheich they obtained through military brokers know as condottieri
  12. Humanism
    scholarly study of latin and greek classis and of the ancient church fathers both for its own sake and in the hope of a rebirth of anvient norms and values.
  13. Petrarch
    • "father of humanism"
    • -aroudn avignon
    • Letters to the ancient dead
    • love sonnets to laura
    • africa
  14. Aristotle
    • was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates
    • (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding
    • figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to
    • create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing
    • morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics.
  15. Scholasticism
    • often Scholasticism The dominant western
    • Christian theological and philosophical school of the Middle Ages,
    • based on the authority of the Latin Fathers and of Aristotle and his
    • commentators. Close adherence to the methods, traditions, and teachings of a sect or school.
  16. Liberal arts
    embracing grammar, rhetoric, poetry , history politics, and moral phjilosphy.
  17. Dante Alighieri
    • less secularist than petracrch,
    • vita nova and divine comedy
  18. Giovanni Boccaccio
    wrote the Decameron 100 tales told by 3 men, and 7 women running away from a plague in Florence.
  19. Quintilian
    • Education of the orator
    • became basic classical guide for the humanist recision of the tradition curriculum .
  20. Baldassare Castiglione
    Book of the Courtier-practical guide for the nobility at the court of Urbino, emobides the highest ideals of Italian huminisn. depicts successful courtires as on who knew how to integrate knowelefe of ancient languages and hsitory with athletic, military and musical skills while at the same time practiging good manners and exhibiting a high moral character.
  21. Christine de Pisan
    italian born daughteror the physician and strologer of the french king Charles B. fine education and became expert in classical, french and italian languages and literature. she wrote lyric poety after she was a wodow. The treasure of the city of ladies is a bout the accomplishments of women.
  22. Pico della Mirandola
    wrote the Oration as an intro to a collection of 900 thesis and published in rome to serve as a basis for a public debate on all of life's important popics.
  23. Lorenzo Valla
    aitjpr pf tje stamdard remaossamce text pm ;atom [hiliology elegances of the latin language reaveals the new learning. Also wrote Donation of constantine, that got him support of protestants.
  24. Donation of Constantine
    proved ina careful scholary way what others had suspected. calla demonstrated that the document was filled with terms like fief and pointed out errors of thelatin cucgate. (critisized church)
  25. Machiavelli
    • humanist and student of ancien rome
    • intruiged by the way the romans defended their homeland
    • wanted his soldiers to possess same values
    • held deep rebulican ideas
    • wrote the prince- a satire on the ways rulers actually behaved
    • hoped a strong ruler would emerge fromt he medici family
    • the prince wasd dedicated to lorenzo de' medici, duke of urbino and grandsom of lorenzo the mag.
  26. Giotto
    "father of renaissance painting, painted more natural world thatn his predecessors
  27. Massaccio
    • painter who with donatello portayed world more literally and naturally
    • attempted at facial expression and persepective
    • the tribute money
  28. Donatello
    • sculptor, portrayed world more literally and naturally
    • -david and may magdalen
  29. Leonardo da Vinci
    • exhibited R edeal of the universal person
    • -painter, military engineer, lerarend anatomy, nbotanist,
    • skill-conveying emotions through faces mona lisa+self portraits
    • the last supper
  30. Raphael
    • loved for sensativity and kindess and work
    • child genius
    • best known for tender madonna that graced teh monaster of san sisto
    • fresco- school of athens
  31. Michelangelo
    • 18 foot sculpture david- harmony symmetry proportion, glorification of human form
    • frescos- sistine chapel
    • pieta and tombs
    • MANNERISM- new style artist was permitted to express himself and to write in a mannered of affective way
  32. Treaty of Lodi
    brought milan and naples into alliance with florence. they stood together for decades against venice.

    ended when naples prepared to attack milan
  33. Charels VIII
    Responded to ludovocivo and wanted to conqueror Florence, Papal state into Naples, sasvonarola flattered charles biii and gave him a large ransom that saved the vity from being ravaged.
  34. Alexander VI
    • most corrupt pop ever
    • wanted to secure a political base in pomagna
    • wanted to secure french facor, he annulled louis XII marriage to Charles Ciii sister so louis could marry Anne of Brittany, Charles widon to keep Brittany Frnch
    • gave his som title of Duke of Romgna
  35. Lucretia Borgia
  36. Casare Borgia
  37. Julius II
    • supressed borgias, placed their lands in romagnia
    • warrior pope-he brought the papacy to a military high
    • Erasmus wrote about him in Julius Excluded from Heaven
    • drove out vetrians out of romagna
    • ended venetian claims and secured papal states.
    • Part of Holy Leaue,
  38. Francis I
    • Francis I is considered to be France's first Renaissance monarch. His reign saw France make immense cultural advances
    • concodont of bologna with pop leo x
    • king gets to chose bishop reverse of pragmatic sanction or bourges.
    • fought with charles v over burgundy and italy
  39. Cortes
    • The legislative assembly, composed of nobility, clergy, and
    • representatives of cities, which in Spain and in Portugal answers, in
    • some measure, to the Parliament of Great Britain.
    • never called in by Ferdinand and Isabella
  40. Richard III
    Lancester died in battle with Henry Tudor. but got throne from edwards son.
  41. Henry VII
    managed to raise revenue withough begging to paliament after parliament voted him cusoms revenues for life
  42. gabelle
    salt tax in france
  43. Louis IX
  44. Charles the Bold
    defeated and died in war and his ducky of Burgundy.
  45. Maximillian I
    Habsburg emporor who divided burgundian lands between him and louis Xi
  46. Isabella of Castille
    • married ferdinand of aragon,
    • had more land and more money and a greater population
  47. Ferdinand of Aragon
    • married Isabelle of Castile in 1469
    • even though they were married their kingdons were seperate: lawys armies coinage, taxation, tradiditon,
    • subdued realsm, secured borders, christianized spain, conquered mors
    • and got naples,
    • won allegiance of Hermandad-leage of citites and towns that served them against stubbord landowners
    • townspeople replaved nobility
    • Tomas de Torquemada
    • contracted anti-french marriage alliesces
    • funded christopher columbus
  48. reconquista
    conquering of Islamic land in spain by ferdinand and isabel
  49. Charels I (Sp.)
    first ruler over united spain, child of joanna the mad and archduke philip
  50. Christopher Columbus
    • sailed the ocean blue in 1492
    • sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella
    • thought that he would get to japan but got to mexico
  51. Court of Star Chamber
    • Henry VII succeeded in disciplining the English nobility through a special insturment know as Court of Star Chamber.
    • created by parliament it was intended to end the perversion of english justive by "overmighty" subjects(powerful nobles who used intimidation and bribery to win favorable verdicts in court cases.
  52. Golden Bull
    • established 7 member electoral college,
    • 1) archbishop of mainez 2) Triers 3) Cologne 4) Duke of Saxony, 5) Margrave of Bradenburg 6) Court of Palatine 7) King of Bohemia
    • also administrative body
  53. Holy Roman Empire
    • reisisted change into national consolidation and unity
    • germany divided into political entities
    • emporor and major german territorial rules reached an agreement of the Golden bull.
    • rights of many princes were always balanced against the power of one emperor
    • Reichstag-assembly-national asssembly of 7 selectors, non electoral princes, reps from 65 imperial free cities, won an imperial ban on private warefare, creation of a supreme court of justice and imperial council of regency.
    • protestant refomation broke out
  54. Desiderius Erasmus
    • most famous of the Northern Humanists "prince of the humanists"
    • gained fame as educational + religious reformer
    • tutored with latin dialogues, that would teach his students to speak and live well wi/ good manners
    • latin dialogues published under "Colorquites"
    • Collected proverbs and published the under the tiel "adages"
    • "To leave no stone unturned"
    • "Where there is smoke, there is fire"
    • wanted to unite clasical ideals of humanity and civic virtue w/ Christian ideals of love and piety
    • believed best way to reform individual, was by disciplined study of classics and Bible
    • "Philosophia Chrisi" summerized won beliefs w/ that phrase
    • Bothere by middle ages. and luteran scholastics b/c they let doctrine and disputation overshadow piety and chrsitan practice
    • waorded to make ancient chrisian sources availavle in original versions, believed people needed real and pure

    • made a greed edition of the New Testament, church authorities not pleased-unhappy with improvements on vulgate, Christendoms bible for 1000 yearch and anticlerical satires.
    • all his works were plaved on Index of Forbidden Books
  55. Reuchlin Affair
    • Johann Reuchilin-> foremost Christian authority on Hebrew and Jewish learning.
    • -wrote 1st Hebrew grammar by a Christian
    • interested in jewish mysticism
    • Pfefferkorn-> supported by Donminican order in Cologne, converted from Judaism, becan movement to supress jewish writings.
    • He attacked Reuchilin, many german humanists rushed to defend Reuchilin
    • controvery lasted a few years and produced one of the greates satires, Letters of obscure men, to which von Hutten contributed,
    • when luther got attacked about his 95 thesis many people thought that it was similar to the Reuchilin affain and came to his side.
  56. Thomas More
    • best known English humanist.
    • wrote Utopia, imaginary society based on reason and tolerence overcoming social and political injustice.
    • became one of Henry VIII's most trusted diplomats
  57. Prince Henry the Nav.
    • inspired by mercenary motives, reinforced by tradititional missionry ideas, sponsored the Portuguese exploration of the African coast.
    • main object was gold trade.
  58. Bartholomew Dias
    opened portuguese emire in teh east when he rounded cape of good hope at the tip of africa in 1487
  59. Ferdinand Magellan
    • Ferdinand Magellan and Amerigo Vespucci showed that new lands were not the outhermost territory of teh Far East.
    • their travels proved the lands to be an entirely new continent that opened on the still greater Pacific Ocean. Magellan in search of a westward route to the East Indies, died in the Philippines.
  60. Hernan Cortes
    • in 1519, he landed in mexico w/ 500 men and horses.
    • opened communication with communities and Moctezuma II(Aztec Emperor)
    • Moctezuma probably thougth that cortes was the god Quetzalcoatl, who was supposed to return.
    • Formed allliences with Tlaxcala(traditional state and enemy of Aztecs)
    • Led forces to march on Tenochtitlan,
    • Seized Moctezuma, makin him a prisoner in his own capital,
    • Spaniards were driven out of Tenochtitlan and nealy wiped out
    • Returned and laid seige to the city
    • Cuauhetemoc(last rules) and Aztecs resisterd, but were defeated.
    • Built his own capital over Tenochtitlan's ruins and proclained aztec empire to be New Spain
  61. Francisco Pizarro
    • In 1532, he was inspired by Cortes, and he landed on the west coast of South America to take on the Incan Empire.
    • force-200 men with good weapons and horses
    • Lured Atahualpa(the Inca ruler) into a conference, seized him, and killed many of his followers in the process.
    • Atahualpa tried to give the Spaniards gold, but they didnt accept and garroted him in 1533.
    • Fought way into Cuzco(Inca capital) and captured it.
  62. hacienda
    large landed estate owned by people originally borin in Spain (peninsulares) or of SPanish descent born in in Americas (Creoles)
  63. encomienda
    it was decided that natives would supply all labor in New Spain, so encomienda was a formal grant of the right to labor of a speciv number of indians.
  64. Torquemada
    • in 1479 monitored Jews(conversos) and Muslims (Moriscos) in spain
    • Isabella of Castile's confessor,
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