Match: This type of seizure is characterized by staring spell with subtle motor movements. It can begin at childhood and usually continues to adulthood.
List other characteristics
Others: Peculiar behavior warning, with confusion after seizure
Myoclonic seizures can be described as _____.
It will respond to this drug ____.
Jerking, brief seizures, leading to a fall.
It can respond with valproic acid (Depakote)
This type of seizure is known as a "drop attack." What is its biggest concern?
Atonic Seizure: sudden fall to the ground, with consciousness returning immediately.
Head injury is a big concern.
What is Todd's paralysis and how long can it last up to?
Weakness in part of all of the body after a seizure.
Usually subsides completely within 48 hours.
Simple focal seizures (partial) lasts up to __a__. They will __b__ (lose / remain) consciousness.
They may also have sudden __c__.
a. 1 minute or less
b. remain conscious
c. sudden and unusual feelings (joy, anger, sadness)
This type of seizure may cause a person to display strange behavior (automatism), or do dangerous things, like walk into traffic.
What is magneto - encephalography?
What do you repeat if assessment diagnostics show no explanation for seizure?
(MEG): neuroimaging technique for brain activity
Repeat: CT or MRI should be repeated at periodic intervals to rule out tumor
How is a electro - encephalogram performed?
Electrodes are placed on the scalp, and the person is exposed to stimuli to provoke a seizure.
Why is a status epilepticus the most dangerous type of seizure?
This seizure is continuous or multiple seizures without full recovery of consciousness and can occur with any type.
The brain uses more energy than can be supplied, leading to possible brain damage.
Can lead to:
Status epilepticus is the most dangerous type of seizure. List treatment measures
List emergent interventions
List things you will monitor
List meds for status epilepticus
Stop seizure and identify cause.
Aggressive anticonvulsant if indicated.
- CPR if needed
- IV w/ NS
Monitor: VS, labs, EKG
Meds: Lorazapam, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin
Valproic acid can be used for this type of seizure:
List indication for the med, Diazepam:
Select all that apply for meds that are for generalized simple or complex partial seizures:
a. Valproic acid
a. Valproic acid
Select all that apply for meds indicated for Absence seizures:
a. Valproic acid
a. Valproic acid
List nursing consideration, how many days to wait between dosing changes, and patient education about Phenytoin.
What are its side effects?
What are toxic effects?
- d/c the drug if liver enzymes >2x normal value
Days: allow 7-10 days between dose changes
Teaching: warn patient to never abruptly stop taking med
- Encourage flossing
Side Effects: dulling of cognition, Nystagmus, Gingival Hypertrophy (lack of flossing)
Toxicity: slurred speech
- problems w/ coordination
T or F: Carbamazepine is indicated for absence seizures
False: simple or complex partial seizures
List serious side effects of valproic acids.
Can pregnant women take this?
serious s/e: pancreatitis and liver failure
It is a teratogenic in pregnancy
This drug is an alternative for generalized tonic-clonic and simple/complex partial seizures.
Is it more or less effective as phenytoin?
Phenobarbital: it is as effective as phenytoin
This drug is indicated as an adjunctive therapy in seizures
Fill in: ETOH withdrawals can be seen within __a__ hours of cessation of alcohol ingestion.
The 2 drugs that can be administered are __b__ or __c__
a. 7-30 hours
This type of seizure resembles epileptic seizures, but are different as diagnosis occurs from people with a history of emotional abuse, physical neglect, or other specific traumatic episode.
What is its name and how is it different than other seizures?
Psychogenic seizure: there is usually no incontinence, tongue biting, or postictal phase
List management during postop
Check for bleeding or infection
Evidence of seizure activity
List patient teaching of what to do during a seizure
How will they protect from injury?
When to call 911?
Protect from injury:
- Protect head w/out restraining movements
- Turn on side
- Loosen constrictive clothing
- Ease person to floor if sitting
When to call 911: during status epilepticus. This is when seizure is prolonged without full recovery (brain damage and hypoxia)
List patient teaching of phenytoin
Take same time each day
May cause drowsiness or dizziness
Avoid use with alcohol
Maintain good dental hygiene (see denist frequently)
If diabetic, monitor BG carefully
Do not take within 2-3 hours of antacids
Notify healthcare provider for thoughts of suicide
A patient comes in the ER who is experiencing seizures. List the initial steps that you will take to ensure patient safety, meds to anticipate, and other interventions that you will need to do during a seizure event.
Maintain patent airway with suctioning and/or turning on side.
Ensure safety by padding side rails, DO NOT RESTRAIN, and remove or loosen tight clothing.
Establish IV access, and anticipate administration of phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), benzos to control seizures.
Assist with ventilation if needed after seizure or intubation if gag reflex is absent.
What are the 2 most commonly used antiseizure drugs during a status epilepticus seizure? What is it usually followed up with?
Lorazepam and diazepam are commonly given as a rapid-acting IV.
They are short-acting drugs, so it is followed up with a long-acting drug such as phenytoin or phenobarbital.