Chemistry Acids and Bases

  1. Explain Bronsted Lowry
    • Acids donate H
    • Bases accept H
  2. Explain Conjugate Pairs
    • There is 1 proton difference.
    • If the proton is removed, it is an acid
    • If the proton is added, it is a base
    • The one with the extra proton is the acid
  3. Properties of bases
    • Metal oxides and hydroxides
    • Ammonia
    • soluble carbonates (Na2CO3)
  4. What is an alkali
    Soluble bases that release OH in water
  5. Acid+ Base
    Salt and water
  6. Acid + Carbonate
    • Salt
    • Water
    • CO2
  7. Acid + Metal
    • Salt
    • Hydrogen
  8. Ionization of water
    • Water is neutral pH 7 at a specific temperature
    • Kw= [H][OH]
    • Thus, those two have an inverse relationship
    • pH+pOH=14
  9. Strong bases
    • LiOH
    • NaOH
    • KOH
    • BA(OH)2
  10. Differences between strong acids and weak acids
    strong=more conductive, higher rate of reaction and lower pH
  11. Lewis acids and bases
    • Lewis acid accepts a lone pair (transition metal)
    • Lewis base donates a lone pair (ligand)
  12. What is nucleophile
    Electron-rich that donates a lone pair (lewis base)
  13. What is electrophile
    (electron deficient that accepts a lone pair.(lewis acid)
  14. The greater the Ka or Kb
    The stronger the acid or base
  15. The smaller the pKa or Pkb
    The stronger the acid or base
  16. For a conjugate pair, what is the relationship of Pka and PKb
  17. How to form buffers:
    Weak acid/base + salt of weak acid or base formed with strong acid or base
  18. As temperature increases, Ka increases, pKa decreases and the buffer capacity also decreases
  19. For the half neutralization point
  20. What is the buffer range
    The range before complete neutralization
  21. Rain water is naturally acidic
    Water+ co2
  22. Pre-combustion reducton of SO2 release
    • HDS: removes S from petroleum products by reacting it with H, creating H2S
    • During combustion reduction of SO2 release:
    • Fluidized bed combustion: air jets while coal burns and limestone absorbs SO2 as it is released
    • CaCO3= CaO + CO2
    • CaO+ SO2=CaSO3
    • CaO+SO2+O2=CaSO4
  23. Post combustion reduction of SO2 release:
    • Flue gas
    • CaCO3= CaO + CO2
    • CaO+ SO2=CaSO3
    • CaO+SO2+O2=CaSO4
  24. How does CaO and CaOH reduce the eefects of acid rain
    • CaO+H2SO4= CaSO4 + H2O
    • Ca(OH)2+H2SO4=CaSO4+2H20
  25. Car engines
  26. Catalytic converter
    • Platinum or paladium covered catalysts catalyze the following reaction
    • CO+NO=CO2+N2
  27. Combustion of Coal
Card Set
Chemistry Acids and Bases