CDS 501 Week 3

  1. Variable
    attribute that is subject to change with manipulation 

    • any attribute in which something is observed to change
    • can have more than one value
  2. Independent Variable
    • cause, input (ex. clinical work)
    • manipulated by the researcher through assignment, grouping, or control
    • specify the conditions for conducting the research
  3. Dependent Variable
    • outcomes, effect (ex. child performance)
    • variables that are observed, counted, or measured
  4. Extraneous/Nuisance Variable
    variable that can effect how the IV and DV interact

    • may be known or unknown 
    • interference that could cause outliers 
    • sometimes you have to scrap the study
    • sometimes you just describe and account for it in the report
    • can include any factors that are operating during the study

    ex) administer a test but the air conditioner breaks and its 100 degrees
  5. Active Variables
    • any variable that can be manipulated 
    • usually the IV
  6. Attribute Variable
    IV that cannot be manipulated by the experimenter
  7. Qualitative Variable
    express how things differ in types
  8. Quantitative Variable
    • express how things differ in degree
    • Have greater statistical power and mathematical meaning
  9. Operational Definitions
    • defining how items were used in your research
    • defining a variable in terms of how it will be measured
    • spelling out all the things you do in your methods
    • describe the activities the materials necessary to measure and manipulate the data
    • some aren't easy to define so they need  a different measurement (ie intelligence)

    • what behaviors will be measured?
    • ex) stuttering (list behaviors that are characteristic of disorder)

    • how is an independent variable is measured/manipulated? 
    • ex)treatment approaches - same treatment different number of times
  10. Research Design Plan
    controls for methods, participants, procedures and data interpretation
  11. Experimental Research Design
    • IV controlled/manipulated
    • randomization to avoid bias
  12. Quasi Experimental Research Design
    • IV is fixed, cannot be manipulated 
    • Little random assignment 
    • most common research type of SLPs
    • clinical groups often compared to typical development
  13. Purpose of Research
    gain new knowledge through systematic observation
  14. Quantitative Research
    • empirical investigation
    • coding: measuring observations numerically
    • based on deductive reasoning 
    • hypotheses that are tested formally
    • look for significant results (large difference between two tested groups)
  15. Types of Quantitative Research (names)
    • True experiments
    • Quasi-experiments
    • Correlation Experiments 
    • Clinical Research
  16. True experiments
    • random assignment 
    • control IV

    Bivalent: manipulate IV 2 times (tested at 2 diff noise levels)

    Multivalent: manipulate IV 3+ times (tested at 4 noise levels)
  17. Correlation Experiments
    • describe direction and strength of a relationship
    • describe similarities/differences between events, objects, behaviors.
  18. Quasi Experiments
    • no random assignment
    • sound methods 
    • compared to other research
  19. Clinical Research
    study some aspect of the clinical process
  20. Qualitative Research
    • naturalistic setting 
    • inductive reasoning 
    • descriptive accounts (categories, words)
    • data from field notes, case studies, clinical records, transcriptions, etc.
  21. Ethnography
    • approach to qualitative research
    • focuses on an entire culture of people
    • based in anthropology (origins and social relationships)
  22. Phenomenology
    • qualitative research approach
    • attempt to examine trends based on the presenting phenomena from the participant's viewpoint
  23. Field research
    • qualitative research approach
    • observation of phenomena in the natural setting
  24. 3 Qualitative Research Approaches
    • Ethnography
    • Phenomenology
    • Field research
  25. 4 Characteristics of Experimental research
    • 1. find something to observe
    • 2. control the occurrence of event
    • 3. replicable 
    • 4. conditions can be manipulated to measure effects
  26. Descriptive Research Types for SLPs
    • comparative
    • developmental
    • correlational
    • survey
    • retrospective: analyzing past data
  27. Comparative Research
    compare/contrast 2+ subjects at one point
  28. Developmental Research
    • study changes over time
    • longitudinal: follow same people, long time
  29. Efficacy
    ability to produce a desired or intended result
  30. Dichotomous Variable
    2 categories of IV

    **qualitative variable
  31. Multiple Grouping
    more than 1 categories of DV

    **qualitative variable
  32. Discrete Variable
    • measured in clear, separate steps/groups
    • ex) male or female

    **qualitative variable
  33. Coding Value Variable
    numbers that are used to form categories

    **qualitative variable
  34. Nominal Variables
    • named groupings
    • no numerical value
    • ex) stutterer vs non-stutterer

    **qualitative variable
  35. Interval Degrees or Differences
    • equivalence of units throughout the scale 
    • constant distance between adjacent intervals

    **quantitative variable
Card Set
CDS 501 Week 3
CDS 501