Pathology- Autoimmune

  1. What is another name for CD4 T cells?
    Helper T cells
  2. What is the function of Helper T cells (TH)?
    Secrete cytokines
  3. Which MHC molecule does CD4 T cells bind to?
    MHC Class II
  4. What do TH1 secrete?
    IL-2 and IFN (interferon)
  5. What type of immunity is elicited by TH1?
    • Cell-mediated immunity (Macrophage activation, stimulation of IgG production)
    • Defense against microbes
  6. What do TH2 secrete?
    IL-4 and IL-5
  7. What type of immunity is elicited by TH2?
    • Humoral immunity (activation of mast cells, stimulation of IgE production)
    • Defense against helminths
  8. What is another name for CD8 T cells?
    Cytotoxic T cell
  9. Which MHC molecule do CD8 T cells bind?
    MHC Class I
  10. When do B cells form plasma cells?
    When stimulated by antigen
  11. What is the second signal that allows B cells to recognize an antigen?
    IgM and CD21
  12. Which MHC molecule do NK cells bind?
    Class I
  13. Which chromosome has the gene that encodes MHC
    Chromosome 6
  14. What is another name for MHC gene?
    HLA (human leukocyte antigens)
  15. What are the three classes of MHC gene?
    • Class I – ABC (ie HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C)
    • Class II – DP, DQ, DR
    • Class III- complements
  16. Where can Class I MHC be found?
    Present on almost all nucleated cells and platelets
  17. Which cells have MHC Class II?
    Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells
  18. What is the function of MHC Class II?
    Present exogenous antigen to CD4 T cells
  19. Ankylosing spondylosis is associated with which HLA gene?
  20. What are the types of disorders of immune system?
    • Hypersensitivity reactions
    • Autoimmune diseases
    • Immunologic deficiency syndromes
    • Amyloidosis
  21. What is Type I Hypersensitivity?
    Immediate reaction, such as anaphylaxis, allergies
  22. What is the immune mechanism of Type I Hypersensitivity?
    Production of IgE antibody, immediate release of vasoactive amines and other mediators from mast cells
  23. What is Type II Hypersensitivity?
    Antibody mediated response
  24. What is a prototypical disorder for Type II hypersensitivity?
    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
  25. What is the immune mechanism of Type II Hypersensitivity?
    Production of IgG, IgM
  26. What is Type III Hypersensitivity?
    Immune complex-mediated response
  27. What is a prototypical disorder of Type III Hypersensitivity?
    System Lupus Erythematous
  28. What is Type IV hypersensitivity?
    T Cell-mediated hypersensitivity
  29. What is a prototypical disorder of type IV hypersensitivity?
    Contact dermatitis
  30. What is Atopy?
    Predisposition to develop localized immediate hypersensitivity reactions to a variety of inhaled and ingested allergens; have elevated IgE levels
  31. In Autoimmune diseases, antibodies are formed to target against which antigens?
    Self-antigen on surface of own cells or tissues
  32. What are the three effector mechanisms of antibody-mediated injury (autoimmune)?
    • Opsonization and phagocytosis
    • Complement and Fc receptor mediated inflammation
    • Antibody-mediated cellular dysfunction
  33. True/False: antibodies can either inhibit or stimulate cellular dysfunction
    True. i.e. Inhibit: myasthenia gravis, pemphigus vulgaris. Stimulate: graves disease
  34. Transfusion reactions are which type of antibody-mediated injury?
    Opsonization and phagocytosis
  35. What are the two types of Type III hypersensitivity?
    • Circulating immune complexes
    • In situ immune complexes
  36. What is circulating immune complex?
    Antigen combines with antibody within circulation and are deposited in vessel walls
  37. What is in situ immune complex?
    Complexes formed at extravascular sites (organs/local) where antigen may have been deposited previously
  38. What are the two types of T cell reaction that can cause tissue injury and disease in type IV?
    • Delayed type hypersensitivity CD 4 cells
    • Direct cell cytotoxicity CD8 cells
  39. What are some prototypical diseases that is Type IV?
    RA, MS, DM type I, IBD, Psoriasis, Contact sensitivity
  40. What are the immuneprivileged sites in the body?
    • Eyes
    • Testis
    • Brain
  41. What does it mean to be immuneprivileged?
    Body has never seen antigens from these organs (eyes, testis, brain) so if any of these get injured, the antigens released will cause an autoimmune effect
  42. What is the antibody associated with Systemic sclerosis?
  43. What is the antibody associated with limited scleroderma?
  44. What is the antibody associated with sjorgen syndrome?
    SS-A, SS-B
  45. What is the clinical symptom of patients with Sjorgen’s Syndrome?
    Dry mouth, dry eyes
  46. What is the clinical presentation of patients with Sjorgen’s Syndrome?
    Enlarged gland, unable to produce saliva, therefore dry mouth
  47. What do 1% of patient’s with Sjorgen’s are likely to develop?
    B-cell lymphomas
  48. What is systemic sclerosis associated with?
    Fibrotic changes
Card Set
Pathology- Autoimmune
McCarver HnH Pathology lectures on autoimmune and hypersensitivity