Your friend Reanna asks you about cancer prevention methods that go beyond lifestyle changes. You inform her about Gardasil and Cervarix, which protect against infection by 2 high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). What percentage of cervical cancers, worldwide, are associated with these 2 types of HPV.
Your best friend is diagnosed with lymphoma and asks you about what she's read about the side effects of treatments particularly gastrointestinal effects and hair loss. You explain to her that many drugs used in the treatment of cancer have effects on the gastrointestinal system and hair because they are especially toxic to cells that are
A maximum lifetime dose has been established for this antitumor antibiotic given for breast cancer due to cardiotoxicity
Precautions that should be taken while caring for patients receiving cytotoxic drugs include
Persons who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or actively trying to conceive should not care for patients receiving cytotoxic drugs
Side effects associated with monoclonal antibodies may be avoided by
Pre medication with acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, or meperidine
Darian is being treated for lymphoma and invariably experiences nausea and vomiting from his chemotherapy. What medication might be useful in minimizing these side effects?
Patient education for families of patients undergoing cancer treatments should
Include the importance of aseptic technique and good oral hygiene
Important responsibilities of the health care workers involved in the administration of antineoplastic agents include
Checking intravenous sites with great care to ensure antineoplastic agents do not infiltrate, causing extreme tissue damage and necrosis
The administration of chemotherapy includes
Frequently modifying an individualizing treatment according to the patient's response
Macy's chemotherapy has left her so anemic and prone to infections that treatment must be temporarily halted. What type of drug might Macy be prescribed to help her body produce bone marrow stem cells that divide and develop into red and white blood cells, and platelets
Rylie is an oncology nurse who is trying to conceive a baby. Is it safe for her to administer cytotoxic chemotherapy?
No. Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding or actively trying to conceive a child should not care for patients receiving cytotoxic drugs
Health care workers should observe what type of precautions while caring for patients receiving radioactive isotopes
Additional care to prevent contact with any of the patient's body fluids as well as special handling of linens to protect the health care worker
Bone marrow suppression is a side effect that may result from several types of chemotherapy agents. Which of the following is not an indicator of bone marrow suppression?
Side effects associated with interferons may include
All of the above (flu-like symptoms, depression and GI symptoms)
Chemotherapy agents may cause a suppression in bone marrow, resulting in
All of the above(thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, pancytopenia and anemia)
Which diuretics interact with nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory agents increasing the risk of renal insufficiency
Which side effect is more likely the result from the use of a potassium-sparing diuretic
Patient education for treatment with uricosuric agents, such as probenecid, should include
Avoid use of aspirin-containing products
Cautions are contradictions for both loop diuretics and thiazide diuretics are similar, and include all of the following except
Antiandrogens treat benign hypertrophy by
Blocking alpha-1 receptors found in smooth muscle in the bladder neck and prostate, causing them to relax
Patient education for treatment with antispasmodics should include
Use caution when driving or operating machinery
Patient education for treatment with phenazopyridine (Pyridium) should include
Your urine and tears may change color to Orange-red, staining clothing and contact lenses
Patient education for treatment with a nonuricosuric agent, such as allopurinol (Zyloprim), should include
The actions of a cholinergic drug on the bladder would be useful for
Stimulation of parasympathetic nerves to bring out contraction of the urinary bladder in nonobstructive urinary retention
Your friend is wondering why his grandfather has recently been put on diuretics. You explain that diuretics are typically given to
Reduce circulating fluid volume to help treat edema and hypertension
Patient education for treatment with thiazide diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide, should include
Take with food
Alpha-blockers treat benign prostatic hypertrophy by
Causing relaxation of the bladder neck and prostate
Extreme caution is indicated when this diuretic class is used in patients with heart failure or active intracranial bleeding
Earl is unable to tolerate his medication for chronic gout and is switch to a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. How do Xanthine oxidase inhibitors act?
By decreasing serum and urinary levels of uric acid
The treatment of choice for constipation in a nursing mother with heart failure would be
Contraindications of antiemetics include
Pregnancy and lactation, seizure disorders, and cardiac arrhythmia
Side effects of antiulcer agents can include
Diarrhea, dizziness, rash, headache, mild gynecomastia and mental confusion
Treatment is preferred over prevention in the treatment of nausea, vomiting, or motion sickness to avoid using unnecessary medications
Which side effects are most commonly associated with cathartics and laxative preparations
Occasional mild, transitory GI cramping or rash
Patients taken antidiarrheal agents should be instructed regarding
Bismuth subsalicylates may cause ringing in the ears
Drugs that act by partially neutralizing gastric hydrochloric acid are
Antidiarrheal agents are contraindicated in which of the following situations?
Concomitant use with Warfarin or C-diff associated with antibiotics
Bulk-forming laxatives such as psyllium, cellulose derivatives, polycarbophil and bran are the treatment of choice for
Simple constipation unrelieved by natural methods
Acute abdominal pain, partial bowel obstruction, dysphasia, or esophageal obstruction are precautions or contraindications for bulk-forming laxatives
Emollient preparations are not appropriate in which situations?
Bedridden, debilitated, pregnant, or geriatric patients
Bismuth subsalicylate has anti-infective properties as well as antisecretory properties in treating diarrhea.
Drugs that act by reducing gastric acid secretion are
Of the laxatives, which one is specifically for opiate-induced constipation
Stimulant laxatives are the treatment of choice for
Conditions in which rapid, thorough emptying of the bowel is required
Relevant education for a patient receiving ulcer therapy may include
Take your antacid at least 2 hours before or after other drugs
Which of the following is the treatment of choice for constipation in pregnant or nursing women?
Prophylaxis of calculus formation in those with hypercalciuria