501 QUIZ 2

  1. acetylcholine
    • chemical secreted by neuron at synapses
    • stimulates
    • inhibits or modifies receptor proteins in membrane of adjacent neuron or muscle
  2. acetylcholinesterase
    enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
  3. anti-acetylcholinesterase
    substance that inhibits the breakdown of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase
  4. antimuscarinic
    agent that inhibits stimulation of muscarinic receptors; also called anticholinergic or parasympatholytic
  5. autonomic nervous system
    involuntary visceral function
  6. Function of Plasma:
    • Prevent blood loss
    • Carries RBCs that transport O2
    • Aids in gamma globulins
  7. inotropic
    CO
  8. chronotropic
    • HR
    • conduction
    • **SV node**
  9. dromotropic
    • HR
    • automaticity 
    • **AV node**
  10. heart block
    bradycardia
  11. Extrinsic
    Faster process activated when blood is exposed to “tissue extracts”
  12. Intrinsic
    slow process initiates with blood coming in contact with collagen in vessel walls
  13. thrombosis
    local coagulation or clotting of the blood in a part of the circulatory system
  14. Hematopoiesis
    formation of blood cells
  15. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
    • Plasma proteins and fibrinogen 
    • -->final step
  16. patho between renal failure and anemia
    When kidneys are diseased or damaged, they do not make enough EPO. As a result, the bone marrow makes fewer red blood cells, causing anemia.
  17. EPO
    epoetin alfa
  18. DVT
    Homan’s sign: calf pain w/ dorsiflexion of the foot
  19. homan's sign
    • calf pain w dorsiflexion of foot
    • DVT
  20. patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) should consider taking what drug?
    • Clopidogrel
    • Ticlodipine
  21. Atherosclerosis
    plaque in arteries
  22. prostacyclin
    natural baseline in coagulation cascade
  23. atherosclerosis vs prostacyclin
    • atherosclerosis creates plaque
    • plaque prevents prostacyclin
    • inhibitory effect on coagulation
  24. heparin vs prostacyclin
    natural checks in cascade
  25. heparin vs factors x
    inhibition
  26. heparin vs thrombin
    inhibition
  27. what does heparin block?
    factor X & thrombin
  28. ototoxicity + nephrotoxicity
    • vancomycin
    • +
    • gentamicin
  29. anticholinesterase agent
    indirect-acting cholinergic agonist
  30. warfarin MAO
    • blocks vit K
    • inhibits Prothrombin
    • prevents thrombin
  31. warfarin vs vit K
    blocks
  32. warfarin vs. prothrombin
    blocks
  33. warfarin vs. thrombin
    prevents
  34. warfarin lab test
    INR
  35. INR
    international Normalized Ration
  36. INR risk levels
    • basic 2.0-3.0
    • high 2.5-3.5
  37. vit K vs Prothrombin
    prothrombin --> thrombin
  38. PCNs
    • G
    • naf-, dicloxa 
    • ampi-, amoxa
    • Ticar-, Pipera-
  39. narrow spectrum 
    sensitive
    PCN G
  40. narrow spectrum
    vancomycin
  41. narrow spectrum
    penicillinase resistant
    • naf-
    • dicloxa-
  42. broad spectrum
    • amoci-
    • ampi-
  43. extended spectrum
    • ticar-
    • pipera-
  44. cephalosporins
    • 1st cephalothin  
    • 2nd cefamandole
    • 3rd ceftriaxone
    • 4th cefepime
  45. ceph-
    cef-
    cephalosporins
  46. -penum
    cephalosporins
  47. treat c.diff & MRSA
    vancomycin
  48. drugs that weaken cell wall
    • PCN
    • cephalosporins
    • carbapenums 
    • vancomycin
  49. bactrim
    sulfamethoxazole-trimethropin
  50. sulfamethaxozole-trimethropin MOA
    ADR
    • block DNA synthesis
    • steven johnsons syndrome
  51. fluoroquinolones
    • miscellaneous
    • broad spectrum
    • C.diff
    • thrush 
    • photosensitivity
  52. ciprofloxacin
    fluoroquinolones
  53. -floxacin
    fluoroquinolones
  54. cephalosporins 
    across generations
    • low to high 
    • activity against Gram (-) bacteria
    • B-lactamase resistance
    • BBB
  55. if a patient has allergic rxn to PCN, what drug should u consider admin?
    macrolides
  56. macrolides
    -omycin
  57. preferred -omycin
    erthromycin
  58. drug that carries highest risk for c. diff?
    clindamycin
  59. reserved for MRSA/VRE?
    linezolid
  60. what drug has wash out phase?
    gentamicin
  61. aminoglycosides
    gentamicin
  62. gentamicin
    • wash out phase
    • dose 1x day 
    • low intervals 
    • prevents irreversible otoxicity
  63. why does tetracycline have nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity?
    • enterohepatic recirculation
    • renal excretion
  64. why does tetracycline cause permanent discoloration in kids?
    Ca2+ binding
  65. c.diff + thrush
    • tetracycline
    • fluoroquinolones
  66. aminoglycosides + PCN
    increases effects
  67. why would cephalosporins and carbapenums be considered nephrotoxic?
    only one type in 3rd generation is metabolized the liver
  68. drug that weakens cell wall without a beta lactam ring?
    vancomycin
  69. protein binders?
    • tetracycline
    • macrolides
    • clindamycin 
    • aminoglycosides
  70. what trend in toxicity would you expect to see in drugs that prohibit protein synthesis indicate and why?
    nephrotoxicity because they bind to protein and thereby undergo renal excretion
  71. Cephalosporins & carbapenems have what Nursing implications?
    • bleeding:
    • blocks Vit K --> inhibits prothrombin

    Caution: anticoagulants and NSAID
  72. cytochrome P450
    • warfarin + macrolides 
    • warfarin + rifampin
  73. different ADR between Cephalosporin than Carbapenem?
    ETOH intolerance
  74. drugs that inhibit bacterial synthesis of DNA or RNA
    Sulfamethoxazole-trimethroprim (Bactrim)

    fluoroquinolones

    metronidazole
  75. 2 Drug regimen for c.diff?
    Metronidazole + Vancomycin
  76. 2 drug regimen for h. pylori
    metronidazole + Tetracycline
  77. rule for antimycobacterial agents
    req long treatment >6 mo
  78. Latent TB treated with _______ for 6-9 months
    INH
  79. Latent TB treated with _________  and _____ for 3 months
    INH and rifampin
  80. INH
    Isoniazid
  81. Isoniazid
    INH for TB
  82. rifamin Tx?
    TB
  83. Pyrazinamide
    Ethambutol
    TB
  84. Red/orange discoloration of body fluids (warn the patient!)
    rifampin
  85. why would rifampin have hepatoxicity?
    Powerful inducer of cytochrome P450 enzymes
  86. what is ADR diff between rifampin and ethambutol?
    rifampin is more hepatotoxic due to liver excretion and ethambutol has kidney excretion
  87. Amphotericin B (Nystatin)
    Fluconazole
    antifungals
  88. antifungals
    • amphotericin B (nystatin)
    • fluconazole
  89. Acyclovir
    Ganciclovir
    • antiviral non-HIV
    • Tx Herpes
  90. Tx herpes
    -clovir
  91. -clovir
    • antiviral 
    • Tx herpes
  92. Oseltamivir
    Zanamivir
    • antiviral 
    • Tx flu
  93. Tx flu
    -mivirs
  94. direct-acting muscarinic agonist
    • bethanechol
    • pilocarpine
  95. bethanechol
    direct-acting muscarinic agonist
  96. bethanechol Tx
    UTI
  97. betheanechol ADR
    • hypotension
    • bradycardia 
    • excessive salivation
  98. bethanechol contra?
    bowel and urinary obstruction
  99. neostigmine
    irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor
  100. neostigmine Tx
    MG
  101. neostigmine ADR
    cholinergic crisis
  102. MG crisis nursing implication?
    lower dose of neostigmine
  103. tensilon
    diff between cholinergic crisis and myasthenic crisis
  104. indirect-acting muscarinic agonist
    tensilon
  105. pilocarpine Tx?
    glaucoma
  106. atropine
    muscarinic antagonist
  107. atropine Tx
    • smooth muscle:
    • mydriasis for eye exam 
    • bradycardia
  108. atropine ADR
    • xerostomia
    • blurred vision
    • urinary retention 
    • constipation 
    • tachycardia
    • asthma
  109. pralidoxene
    irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor
  110. nerve gas
    pralidoxene
  111. type 2 hypersensitivity Dx
    • MG
    • acute organ rejection 
    • hemolytic anemia
    • blood mismatch (Rh factor)
    • heparin-induced thromboctyopenia
  112. type 4 hypersensitivity Dx
    chronic organ rejection
  113. final step blocker
    • abciximab 
    • eptifibatide
    • +
    • dabigatran
  114. abciximab
    eptifibatide
    • final step blocker
    • glycoprotein antagonists
  115. abciximab
    eptifibatide 
    Tx
    • pts w/ acute coronary syndrome
    • prevention of ischemic events
  116. arachidonic pathway blocker
    ASA
  117. thrombin blocker
    Heparin
  118. collagen blocker
    VW Dx
  119. VW disease Tx
    Factor VIII
  120. VW disease vs coagulation cascade
    adhesion
  121. ADP blocker
    • ticlopidine
    • clopidogrel
  122. ticlopidine
    clopidogrel
    Tx
    • phrohylaxis 
    • --> atherosclerosis
    • --> MI/Stroke RISK FOR
    • --> CABG surgery ("g" for graft)
  123. Factor X blocker
    • heparin
    • LMW Heparin 
    • warfarin
  124. Heparin LMW vs unfractionated Heparin
    • no dual effect
    • only blocks X Factor
  125. dabigatran
    • final step blocker
    • direct thrombin inhibitor 
    • fibrinogen blocker
  126. fibrinogen blocker
    dabigatran
  127. dabigatran Tx
    • A Fib
    • unofficially preventing strokes
  128. dabigatran vs warfarin
    alternative to warfarin
  129. ticlopidine ADR
    thrombocypenia
  130. thrombocytopenia
    thrombolytic purpura "purple"
  131. thrombocytopenia vs thrombocytopathia
    • decreased platelet production
    • vs
    • platelet fxn
  132. thrombocytopenia
    • depressed bone marrow production
    • splenomegaly
    • Ab-mediated
    • type 2 hypersensitivity
  133. heparin causes what type of hypersensitivity
    type II
  134. thromobocytopathia inherited
    Tx
    factor VIII
  135. thrombocytopathia Dx
    VW Disease
  136. thrombocytopathia acquired Dx
    • ASA/NSAIDS 
    • stop drugs
  137. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
    consumption of factors
  138. DIC Tx
    TTC
  139. inherited coagulation defects Tx
    give factors
  140. sickle cell anemia 
    cause
    • genetic
    • heme (Hb)
  141. sickle cell
    patho
    • obstruction in microcirculation
    • hyper-adhesive
    • hemorrhagic stroke stroke
  142. hemolytic anemia 
    2 types
    • extrinsic 
    • intrinsic
  143. hemolytic anemia s/s
    jaundice
  144. acquired hemolytic anemia
    • Ab-mediated
    • type 2 hypersensitivity
    • s/s jaundice
  145. stem cell transplant
    aplastic anemia
  146. iron deficiency anemia
    • microcytic 
    • hypochromic
  147. pernicious anemia
    • megaloblastic 
    • normochromic
    • B12 deficiency
  148. chemotherapy-induced anemia
    • aplastic anemia
    • acquired neutropenia
  149. aplastic anemia Tx
    EPO
  150. leukopenia Tx
    • G-CSF
    • Filgrastim PO
  151. G-CSF
    granulocyte colony stimulating factor
  152. EPO Tx
    • renal failure induced anemia
    • (RBC #s)
    • chemotherapy induced anemia
    • (bone marrow depression)
  153. ALPHA 1
    • Target:
    • Eyes
    • Blood vessels
    • Urinary
    • Action:
    • Mydriasis“d” for dilation
    • Vasoconstriction
    • nasal decongestant
    • urinary retention
  154. ALPHA 2
    • INDIRECT ACTING 
    • NEUROTRANSMITTER: noradrenialine
  155. BETA 1
    • TARGET: heart & kidney
    • ACTION: CARDIOSELECTIVE
    • increase HR
    • RAAS
  156. BETA 2
    • TARGET: lung, heart, & kidney
    • ACTION: BRONCHO-SELECTIVE
    • Bronchodilatation
    • Vasodilatation
    • Glycogenolysis
  157. pancytopenia
    dx
    patho
    • dx aplastic anemia
    • bottoming out of blood cells- RBC, WBC, & platelets
  158. s/s neuro
    tx b12 inj
    pernicious anemia
  159. dyspnea 
    increased HR
    syncope
    iron deficiency anemia
  160. neutropenia
    depressing neutrophils
  161. pernicious anemia lab test will show an absence in what?
    intrinsic factor
  162. sickle cell patho
    obstruction to microciruclation
  163. For anemias due to bone marrow failure, such as aplastic anemia EPO is not particularly helpful. Why?
    pancytopenia
  164. anemias due to bone marrow failure
    • aplastic anemia
    • chemo-radiation induced anemia
Author
BodeS
ID
342353
Card Set
501 QUIZ 2
Description
WEEKS 4-6
Updated