Well over 50 million eople and perhaps as many as 75 million by 1500. Perhaps 10 million lived in what will be US.
Once nomadic warrior tribe. Late 13th centuray established a precarious rule over much of central and southern Mexico and built elaborate administrative educational and medical systems comparable to most advanced in Europe at the time. harsh religion that required human sacrafice. Population of over 100,000 in 1500 comparable to largest European citites. Pg. 2 Killed by smallpox and the Spanish led by Cortez.
Located in Central America and on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Had a sophisticated culture with a written langauge and numerical system similare to Arabic. Had an accurate calander and advanced agriculture system.
Located in Peru. Powerful empire of perhaps 6 million people. Developed a complex political system and a large network of paved roads that welded together the populations of many tribes under a single gov. Prodcued elaborate settlements with striking religious and cerimonial structures. Accompished this without wheeled vehicles.Francisco Pizarro conquered them which opened the way for other advances in South America.
Noth America-Great Plains
Most tribes were engaged in sedentary farming (corn and other grains) and lived in large permanent settlements although some small nomadic tribes subsisted by hunting buffalo. Pg. 3
Eastern 1/3 of what is now the US much of it covered by forests. Had the greatest food resources of any area of the continent. Most of the many tribes of the region engaged in farming hunting and fishing simultaneously. In the South there were substantial permanent settlements and large trading networks based on the corn and other grains grown in the rich lands of the Mississippi River valey. Cahokia a trading center located nerar present day St. Louis had a population of 40,000 in 1200 AD. Northeast less stationary. Farming techniques were designed to exploit land quickly. Many tries living E of Missippi River were linked loosely with comon linguisitc roots. Largets was Algonquin (along Atlantic Seaboard from Canada to Virginia) Iroquois Confederacy (Centered at what is now upstate NY) Muskogean (tries in Sounthernmost region of E seaboard). Allicances amoung these societies even amoung those with common language were fragile. Not think of themselves as members of a single civ.
Subsisted on some combination of hunting gathering and fishing. Fished and hunted seals and whose civ spaned thousands of miles of largely frozen land.
Subsisted on some combination of hunting gathering and fishing. Principal occupation was salmon fishing and who created substantial permanent settlements along the coast.
Commerce (impact on exploration)
With population growth after black death and reakaening in commerce new merhcant class formed.
Nationalism (and colonization)
New gov's emerged that were more united and powerful than the feeble policitcal entities of the feudal past. In W Europe strong new monacrchs were emerging creating centralized nation states and growing eag to enhance the commerical development of their nations.
Born in Genoa Italy. Early years in service of Portuguese. Believed could reach E Asia by sailing west. Portugal no help so go to Spain. Queen Isabella agreed in 1492. Had 90 men and 3 ships. Left Spain August 1492. Ten weeks later saw land which he thought was Asia. When reached Cuba thought it was China returned to Spain briniging several caputred natives. Called them Indians because he thought they were from the East Indies in Pacific. Tried again with larger expidtion. Headed into Caribbean discovering several other islands and leaving small short time colony on Hispaniola. On third voyage 1498 reached the mainland and cruised along N coast of S America. Realized was new coninent but thought Asia close.
Florentine merchant a passenger on a later Portuguese expedition to the New World who wrote a series of vivid descriptions of the lands he visited and helped popularize the idea the Americas were new coninents.
In 1513 the Spainard Vasco de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and became the first known European to gaze westward upon the ocean that sperated the Americas from China.
Portuguese in Spanish employ sought access to Pacific ocean. Found the strait that now bears his name at the S end of S America struggled through the stormy narrows and into the ocean (so calm by contrast that he christened it the Pacific) and then proceeded to the Philippines. He died there in conflict with natives but his expiditon sent on to complete the first known circumnavigtaion 1519-1522.
In 1518 Hernando Cortés who had been unsuccessful Spanih gov offical in Cuba decided to lead a small military edpedition (about 600 men) against Aztecs of Mexico after hearing stories of great treasure. First assult on capital failed. Smallpox made it possible for them to conquor. Through his ruthless conquest of natives established himself as one of the comst brutal of the conquistadors.
Through their daring and their terrible brutality had cleared the way for the first Spanish settlers in America.
Only interested in exploiting the American stores of gold and silver and fabulosly successful.
For 300 years beginning in 16th cent the mines of S America yielded more than ten times as much gold and silver as the rest of the world's silver mines.
Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas in Peru and oened the way for other advnaces in S America.
Spanish fort established in Florida in 1565 became first permanent European settlment in present day US. Little more than a small military outpost.
Started by Don Juan de Onate in what is now New Mexico.
It is the right to exact tribute and labor from the natives on large tracts of land to favored Spainards.
Role of Disease
European diseases were catistrophic. Native Americans had no immunity to various diseases such as influenza, measles, and typhus, and above all smallpox. Europeans had developed partial immunity to these over time.
Millions died. In some areas native pops were virtually wiped out within a few decades of their first encounters with whites. On Hispaniola where Columbus established a smill short lived colony in 1490s native pop went from around 1 million to about 500.
Mayan area of Mexico 95% of pop perished.
Many of the tribes north of Mexico whose contact with Euroean sttlers came later and was often less intimate were spared the worst of teh epidemics.
Europeans introduced America to importatn new crops (eg sugar and bananas)
Livestock (cattle pigs and sheep) and the horse which became central to the lives of many natives
Europeans learned new agricultral tecniques appropriate for the demands of the new land discovered new crops like maize and squash pumpkins beans sweet potatoes tomatoes peppers and potatoess
Some NAs mixed Christianity with their religons
Were more spanish men than women so they married (often forced marriage) occured which produced people of mixed race which are mestizos. The population of the colonies was dominated (numerically) by them.
African Slave Trade
Over half of all the immigrants to the New World between 1500 and 1800 were Africans
Most came from a large region in W Africa below the Sahara known as Guinea
African slave trade existed before Euroeans settlement in N Amer. As early as 8th cent west Africans began selling small numbers of slaves to traders from the Mediterranean and later the Porutgeuse.
In 16th cent market for slaves increaed dramatically as a result of growing European demand for sugar cane. Small areas of sugar cultivation in the Mediterranean could not meet demand and prdcution spread to Americas. Sugar labor intensive and demand for African workders in these new areas of cultivation was hight.
Slave trade was mostly Portueguese and to lesser extent Spanish.
By 17th cent Dutch had won control over most of market.
18th cent English dominated it.
Upper Gunia had commerical contact with Mediterranean world trading ivory gold and slaves for finished goods and became early converts to Islam
After collapse of Guinea in 1100 AD created larger empire of Mali survived until 15 cent and Timbuktu trading center
Further south centeral social unit was vllage which had members of extend family some villages united in small kingdoms but no large empires
Southern trade woven fabrics cermaics wodden and iron goods and crops and livestock
Uper Guinea fishing and rice cultivation
Futher south grew wheat and toher food crops raised livestock and fished
More nomadic on interior hunting and gathering
Women play major role in trade and in other areas principle farmers men hunt fish raise livestock
Men have politcal systems for themselves women have another
Prists and nobles on top most were farmsers traders crafts workers and others slaves on bottom (people captured in war criminal behavoir or debts)
Native of Genoa
Sailed NE coast of NA on an expedition sponsored by King henry VII in search for NW passage from New World to Orient.
Brit reasons for colonies
People suffer from frequent and costly European wars
Land used for sheep so people displaced
English pop rise considerably so new land for them
Rested on belief that world’s wealth was finite and one person or nation could grow rich only at expense of another and a nation’s econ health depended on exporting a lot and importing little. These principles spread throughout Europe and created a lot of competition. Getting colonies was more attractive because was source of raw materials.
Clamored for reforms that would “purify” the church and did not think Church of England was different enough from Rome. Most did not wish to leave Church of England they wanted to simplify Anglican forms of worship and reform the leadership of the church. Their discontent grew because James I antagonize them taxed them more and no grant charters.
Most radical Puritans determined to worship as they pleased in indep congregations even though they have to attend regular Anglican services.
Founded first permanent settlement in America at Quebec in 1608 (after Jamestown). Pop grew slowly. French had good contacts with NAs. Forged close ties with them deep inside continent. French Jesuit missionaries established some of first contacts. Coureurs de bois fur traders and trappers who penetrated far into wilderness and developed trade and helped colonial econ. F traders formed partnerships with NAs and virtually become part of NA s society. Fur trade helped open way for French agricultural estates (seigneuries) along the St. Lawrence River and for development of trade and military centers at Quebec and Montréal.
Henry Hudson under employ of Dutch sailed up river that was to be named after him in NY State. His explorations led to a Dutch claim. Not long after first two permanent English colonies took root in Jamestown and Plymouth they created a wedge when Dutch West India Co establish series of permanent trading posts on Hudson Delaware and Connecticut Rivers soon to become colony of New Netherland. Principal town New Amsterdam on Manhattan. Dutch pop relatively small.
1588 King Phillip II send one of largest military fleets in history of warfare across English channel to attack England. Smaller English fleet defeated it and ended Spain’s domination in the Atlantic.