chapter 10 airway management

  1. when oxygen doesnt get to the brain, it can begin to die with in __ to __ minutes
    4-6 minutes
  2. inhalation is when oxygen moves from the _____ to the ____
    atmosphere to the lungs
  3. process in which the oxygen crosses the alveolar and attaches to the hemoglobin
  4. ____ cells carry hemoglobin
    red blood cells
  5. carbon leaves the body thru ____
  6. process of exchanging air between the lungs and the environment
  7. Anatomy of the Upper Airway:

    these structures make up the _____
    -oral cavity
    upper airway
  8. Anatomy of the Upper Airway:

    main functions of the upper airway is to ____,____ and ____ the air as it enters the body
    warms,filters and humidify
  9. Anatomy of the Upper Airway:

    nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx make up the _____
  10. Anatomy of the Upper Airway:nasopharynx

    lined with ___ ____ ____ that filters out dust and small particles
    ciliated mucous membrane
  11. Anatomy of the Upper Airway: oropharynx

    contains the _______ which helps prevent food and liquid from entering the larynx
  12. Anatomy of the Upper Airway:larynx 

    form by many independents ____ structures
  13. Anatomy of the Upper Airway:larynx

    divides the ____ and ____ airways
    • upper 
    • lower
  14. Anatomy of the Upper Airway: 

    known as the adams apple
    thyroid cartilage
  15. Anatomy of the Upper Airway:

    forms the lowest portion of the larynx
    cricoid cartilage
  16. Anatomy of the Upper Airway:

    narrowest part of an adults airway
  17. Anatomy of the lower Airway:

    function of the lower airway is to deliver oxygen to ____
    the alveoli
  18. Anatomy of the lower Airway: trachea

    conduit for air entry in to the
  19. Anatomy of the lower Airway: trachea

    located in the ____ cavity
  20. Anatomy of the lower Airway:

    bronchioles are made up of ____ muscle
    -dialates and contract as oxygen passes through them
    smooth muscle
  21. Anatomy of the lower Airway:

    bronchioles connect to the smaller _____
  22. Anatomy of the lower Airway:

    oxygen and carbon are exchanged in the
  23. Anatomy of the lower Airway:

    alveoli are surrounded by ______
    pulmonary capillaries
  24. Anatomy of the lower Airway:

    the ___ is the area between the lungs which contain
    -great vessels
    -major bronchi
  25. Anatomy of the lower Airway:

    phrenic nerve is located in the thorax and allows the ___ to contract, necessary for breathing
  26. ventilation:

    not all all inspired air reaches the ____
  27. ventilation:

    average tidal volume is ____mL
  28. ventilation:

    amount of air that is moved into or out of the lung in a single breath
    tidal volume
  29. ventilation:

    amount of air that doesnt reach the alveoli
    dead space
  30. ventilation:

    failure to meet bodys needs for oxygen maye result in ___
  31. ventilation:
     COPD patients always have higher levels of
    carbon dioxide
  32. ventilation:

    the drive to breath is base on the bodies ____
    Ph level
  33. ventilation:

    tissues that are more ____ get more oxygen from RBC
  34. ventilation:

    tissues that are more ____ get less oxygen from RBC
  35. what percent of air in nitrogen
  36. what percent of air is oxygen
  37. ventilation:

    inhaltion is a ____ process
  38. ventilation:

    exhalation is a _____ process
  39. ventilation:

    inhaling creates a ____ pressure
  40. ventilation:

    exhaling creates a ____ pressure
  41. oxygenation:

    process of loading oxygen molecules into the hemoglobin
  42. respiration:

    ____ is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lung
    external respiration
  43. respiration:

    _____ exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between tissues and the circulatory system
    internal respiration
  44. respiration:

    cardiac irritability occurs how many mins are no oxygen
    0-1 mins
  45. respiration:

    brain damage is not likely after how many mins are no oxygen
  46. respiration:

    brain damage is possible after how many mins are no oxygen
  47. respiration:

    brain damage is very likely after how many mins are no oxygen
  48. respiration:

    irreversible brain damage occurs after how many mins are no oxygen
  49. respiration:

    when adequate amount of oxygen is in the body, cells convert glucose into energy thru what kind of metabolism
    aerobic metabolism
  50. respiration:

    when insufficient oxygen is in the body, cells run off of what metabolism
    anaerobic metabolism
  51. which receptors monitor levels of:
    -carbon dioxide
    -hydrogen levels
    -pH of cerebrospinal fluid
  52. ventilation/perfusion mismatch:

    ventilation and perfusion must be ____
  53. ventilation/perfusion mismatch:

    a failure to match _____ and ____ is the cause of most abnormalities of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
    ventilation and perfusion
  54. ventilation/perfusion mismatch:

    when there is a mismatch ____ ____ is not able to diffuse from blood to lungs
    • carbon dioxide
    • -results in carbon dioxide filled cells recirculating leading hypoxemia
  55. ____ respirations have an irregular or unidentifiable pattern and may follow serious head injury
  56. ______ respirations are deep,rapid, commonly seen in patients with metabolic acidosis
  57. patients with ______ breathing need to treated immidiately
  58. pulse oximeter:

    what does a pulse oximeter measure?
    oxygen saturation levels
  59. pulse oximeter:

    spo2 should be ___% to ___%while breathing normal room air
    98%- 100%
  60. pulse oximeter:

    although no normal values exsist, an spo2 of less than ____% in a nonsmoker can indicate hypoemia
  61. pulse oximeter:

    how long does it take for pulse oximeter to reflect changes
  62. opening the airway:

    adequate breathing means you also have an adequate airway
  63. opening the airway:

    most effective position for opening the airway is the ______ position
  64. opening the airway:

    if patient is found in the prone position you should reposition the patient in the supine position by _____
    • log roll
    • -move the patient in a way so that the whole body, neck and head move as a unit
  65. opening the airway:

    the most common airway obstruction is the ____ in unconscious patients
  66. opening the mouth:

    for patients who have not sustained spinal trauma you can use the _____ ____ ___ ____to open the airway
    head tilt chin lift
  67. opening the mouth:

    patients with suspected spinal injury you should use the ___ ___ to open the airway
    jaw thrust
  68. opening the mouth:

    chest movement alone doesnt indicate that the breathing is adequate
  69. suctioning:

    if you hear gurgling, the patient needs ____
  70. suctioning:

    if the airway is not clear, you will force secretions and fluids into the _____
  71. suctioning:

    A ____ ____ unit must provide enough vacuum pressure and flow to allow you to suction the mouth and nose effectively
    portable suctioning unit
  72. suctioning:

    A __ ___ unit should generate airflow of more than 40L/min and a vacuum of more than ____mm Hg when the tubing is clamped
    • fixed suctioning
    • 300
  73. suctioning:

    ____ and ___ should be fitted with the following
    -Wide-bore, thick-walled, nonkinking tubing
    -Plastic, rigid pharyngeal suction tips, called tonsil tips or Yankauer tips
    -Nonrigid plastic catheters, called French or whistle-tip catheters
    -A nonbreakable, disposable collection bottle
    -Water supply for rinsing the tips
    portable and fixed
  74. suctioning:

    a hollow,cylindrical device used to remove fluid from the airway
    suction catheter
  75. suctioning:

    best kind of catheter for children and infants is
    • tonsil tip catheter
    • -large diameter tips are rigid and do not collapse
  76. suctioning:

    soft plastic, non rigid catheters are called
    • french tip/ whistle tip
    • used when
    • -patient has a stoma
    • -patient with clenched teeth
    • -suctioning the nose is nexcessary
  77. suctioning:

    before inserting a catheter ensure proper ____
  78. suctioning:

    never suction more than ___ secs on adults
  79. suctioning:

    never suction more than ___ secs for children
  80. suctioning:

    never suction more than ___ secs for infants
  81. suctioning:

    repeat suctioning only after the patient has been adequately ____ and ____
    ventilated and reoxygenated
  82. suctioning:

    some secretions are to large to be suctions, in these case you should_____
    log roll the patient enough to clear the mouth
  83. suctioning:

    if a patient who requires assisted ventilations produces frothy secretions as quickly as you can suction them. you should____
    • -suction airway for 15secs
    • -ventilate for 2 mins 
    • -and alternate that pattern until secretions have cleared
  84. airway adjunctions: 

    a _____ ____ prevents obstruction of the upper airway  and allows for passage of air and oxygen to the lungs
    airway adjunction
  85. airway adjunctions: 

    the ____ ____: 
    -keeps the tongue from blocking the upper airway
    -makes it easier to suction the oropharynx if necessary
    oropharyngeal airway
  86. airway adjunctions: 

    ____ is used on unconscious patients without a gag reflex
    oropharyngeal airway
  87. airway adjunctions: 

    ___ reflex is a protective reflex that keeps food from entering the airway
    gag reflex
  88. airway adjunctions:

    the following are some things to consider when using the _____ _____

    -good way to help maintain the airway of a spinal injury patient.
    -may make the head tilt–chin lift and jaw-thrust maneuvers easier to perform.
    -if too large could push the tongue back into the pharynx, blocking the airway.
    -if too small could block the airway directly, like any foreign body obstruction.
    oropharyngeal airway
  89. airway adjunctions:

    use a nasopharyngeal airway on a patient that_____
    • -unresponsive/altered mental status
    • -gag reflex
  90. airway adjunctions:

    consult medical control before inserting a nasopharyngeal airway on a patient who has sustained _____
    trauma to the head or face
  91. maintaining the airway:

    The _____ position is used to help maintain a clear airway in an unconscious patient who is not injured and is breathing on his or her own with a normal
    recovery position
  92. maintaining the airway:

    the recovery position is not for patients who have suspected ____ ____ or ____ injuries
    spinal, hip, pelvic
  93. supplemental oxygen:

    aluminum oxygen cylinders are test every ____ years
    5 years
  94. supplemental oxygen:

    composite cylinders are tested every ___ years
    3 years
  95. supplemental oxygen:

    ____ and ___ cylinders are used most often
    ___ cylinder remains on board the unit as a main supply tank
    • D and M cylinders
    • M cylinder
  96. supplemental oxygen:

    an alternative to compressed gas is ___ ____
    liquid oxygen
  97. supplemental oxygen:

    ___ ___ system prevents the wrong regulator being accidentally used on a different cylinder
    pin-indexing system
  98. supplemental oxygen:

    pressure regulators ___ the cylinders pressure to a therapeutic range for the patient
  99. supplemental oxygen:

    regulators reduce the cylinder PSI to ___ to ___ PSI
  100. supplemental oxygen:

    never leave an ____ ____ standing unattended
    oxygen cylinder
  101. supplemental oxygen:

    _____ ____ refers to damage to cells due to excessive oxygen levels in the blood
    oxygen toxicity
  102. supplemental oxygen:

    patients experiencing ___ should be placed on oxygen
  103. supplemental oxygen:

    when in doubt, or if unable to measure oxygen saturation reliably, supplemental oxygen should be administered.
  104. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    what is the preferred way to give oxygen in the prehospital setting?
    • nonrebreathing mask
    • -capable of providing up to 90% inspiration
  105. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    when using a nonrebreathing mask make sure the ___ is full before placing the mask on the patient
  106. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    adjust the flow rate on a nonrebreathing mask to ___L/min
    • 10-15L/min
    • -if bag collapses, increase flow rate
  107. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    ____ deliver oxygen thru two small tubelike prongs that fit into the patients nostrils
    nasal cannulas
  108. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    nasal cannulas can provide ____% to ___% inspired oxygen whem the flow meter is set at ___ to___l/min
    • 24% to 44% inspire oxygen
    • 1-6L/min
  109. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    for patient comfort flow rates above ___L/min are not recommended when using nasal cannulas
  110. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    if long transport time is anticipated, consider using ______
    • humidification
    • -nasal cannulas can irritate the mucous membrane lining of the nose( causing a nose bleed)
  111. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    ___ ___ ___ enriches the air mixture so that patients receive ___% to ___% oxygen
    • partial rebreathing mask
    • 80% to 90% oxygen
  112. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    to convert a nonrebreather mask to a partial mask remove the ___ ___ ___ and the reservoir bag
    on way valve
  113. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    _____ masks are medium flow devices that deliver ____% to ___ % of oxygen
    • venturi mask 
    • 24% to 40% oxygen
  114. Oxygen-Delivery Equipment:

    _____ masks cover the hole on the neck and have a securing strap
    tracheostomy masks
  115. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:BVM

    ____ the bag everytime the patient breaths
  116. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:BVM

    after __ to ___ breaths deliver an appropriate tidal volume
    5 - 10breaths
  117. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    In normal breathing, the diaphragm contracts and _____ pressure is generated in the chest cavity, which sucks air into the chest.
  118. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    ______-pressure ventilation generated by a device forces air into the chest cavity.
  119. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    _______ rates (for apneic patients with a pulse)
    Adult: 1 breath per 5–6 seconds
    Child: 1 breath per 3–5 seconds
    Infant: 1 breath per 3–5 seconds
  120. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    the gas you exhale contains ___% of oxygen
    16% oxygen
  121. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    to increase oxygen concentration administer ____-flow oxygen at 15L/min
    • high
    • -combined with you exhaled breath, this will deliver 55% oxygen
  122. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    who has the tidal volume of 1200-1600ml
    an adult
  123. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    who has the tidal volume of 50-700ml
  124. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    who has the tidal volume of 150-240ml
  125. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    if you have difficulty ventilating with a BMV you should____
    switch to another method
  126. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    when using a BVM the amount of volume you pump into the patient should be based on
    chest rise and fall
  127. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    _____ ____ occurs when ventilation fill the stomach with air
    gastric distention
  128. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    ___ ___ ventilation devices allow a single rescuer to use both hands while also providing positive pressure ventilation
    • manually triggered ventilation
    • -also know as flow restricted, oxygen powered ventilation devices
  129. Assisted and Artificial Ventilation:

    manually triggered ventilation has a peak flow rate of ____% oxygen at up to ____L/min
    100% at up to 40L/min
  130. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP):

    A _____ increases pressure in the lungs, opens collapsed alveoli, pushes more oxygen across the alveolar membrane
    a CPAP
  131. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP):

    CPAP can cause a drop in a patients cardiac output
  132. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP):
    if you see these signs you should use a ____

    -The patient is alert and able to follow commands.
    -The patient displays obvious signs of moderate to severe respiratory distress
    -The patient is breathing rapidly, such that it affects overall minute volume (greater than 26 breaths/min).
    -The pulse oximetry reading is less than 90%.
  133. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP):

    a pressure of 7-10 cm H2O is an acceptable therapeutic range
  134. stomas:

    if a patient has a stoma you should use what size mask on your BVM
    child or infant mask
Card Set
chapter 10 airway management
emergency care and transportation of the sick and injured 11th edition