A future period foretold by the prophets of the OT and identified by Jesus as beginning with His public ministry. Jesus announced the kingdom was present in His ministry (Matt. 12:28). Jesus indubitably was the full embodiment of the kingdom of God
The Kingdom of God is the experience of blessedness - like that of the Garden of Eden, where evil is fully overcome and where those who live in the kingdom knows only happiness, peace and joy
Two Class of the Kingdom of God?
1. It is viewed as present and involving the suffering of those who enter it (2 Th. 1:5)
2. it is also viewed as future and is associated with reward (Mt. 25:34) and glory (Mt. 13:43)
How to enter the Kingdom of God?
New Birth (Matt 18:3, John 3:5)
For nothing man by nature or from any form of self culture, avails to the spiritual realm.
Evidence of New Birth?
The new nature received in the new birth is made evident by obedience. It is further stated that only such as do the will of God can enter into His Kingdom (Matthew 7:21)
How is the Kingdom of God manifested?
rule of God is evident in a believer through obedience
Who were the two persecutors of Christians?
Decius (AD 249-251)
Valerian (AD 253-260)
Imperial Persecution took place between what period?
AD 60 - 312
Jerusalem destroyed by Romans
Which doctrine states that Jesus was purely spiritual and only appeared to be human?
For them knowledge meant freedom to participate in all sort of activities. Many reasoned since they had received divine knowledge and were truly informed as to their divine nature, it did not matter how they lived. What is this referring to?
Which heresy group is similar to Gnostics in terms of dualist and docetist?
They believe the human is made of body soul and spirit. Since the body and soul are a part of peoples earthly existence they are evil (but their spirit is divine)
According to the Gnostics, the created order was evil and opposed to the good. They claim anti-god or demiurge may have created the first order, but each successive order was the work of God. True or False
True or False: The Gnostics accepted the Greek idea of radical dualism between God and the world.
Which Heresy group believed that a system of false teaching that purports knowledge was the way to salvation.
Some of the early leaders are:
Two earlier oppressors are and the time period:
Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.)
Antiochus Epiphanes (215-164 B.C.)
Some of the earlier religious groups were:
AD and BC means
Anno Domini - "in the year of our Lord"
Which group was not kind in welcoming back the Christians?
Novatianists and Donatist (from North Africa)
In the year AD 303, Which Emperor issued a series of edicts to destroy church buildings, burning all copies of sacred books, remove believers from public office and arrest and torture any Christian who refuse to renounce their faith and worship pagan gods of Rome?
Emperor Diocletian (reigned AD 284-305)
Which heresy group claimed the God of the Jew was cruel, vindictive and malevolent and that the present world with all its evil was His creation.
Marcionism believed there exist a God of Love, who had been completely unknown to mankind until He revealed Himself in Jesus. True or False
Which heresy group placed equal value on the prophecies they received compared to the teachings of Jesus and his disciples.
Which heresy group believed that the apocalyptic end of the world was imminent and emphasized strict moralism and asceticism including celibacy and fasting?
ho was a self proclaimed prophet and believed the Holy Spirit spoke through him and his disciples in unique ways?
Which heresy group believed there is an evil god/deity who is referred to as Demiurge.
Gnostics and Marcionism
How did the Church respond to overcome heresy?
1. Centralized leadership
2. Defining the canon of scriptures
3. Articulating the basic non-negotiable beliefs
It is a short statement of faith that represents the central beliefs of Christianity?
The Apostle Creed
What does the Apostle Creed asserts?
1. The God whom Jesus called the father is not a mysterious superior deity or malevolent Demiurge, but was the true Creator of heaven and earth.
2. Insisting on the full humanity of Jesus (who was born, died, buried and resurrected
3. Expressing eternal hope of Believers in terms of the resurrection of the body, rather than the liberation of eternal spirit from the prisons of corrupt flesh
In AD 303, during Emperor Diocletian reign, what Edicts were implemented:
1. The desctruction of church building and burning of all copies of sacred books
2. The removal of believers from public office
3. The arrest and torture of christians who refuse to renounce their faith and worship the pagan god of Rome
What does Constantine edict states?
The edict essentially granted all citizens the right to practice whatever religion they choose. It guaranteed that Christian would have full legal rights and restored the confiscated property to the church, among other things.
Who started the views of Alexander and Arius?
Who supported which views:
A. He support the view that the Son is subordinate to the Father. He believed the Son was a created being and therefore does not possess the same divinity as the Father. Thus he suggests while Jesus was a unique, heavenly agent of God, Jesus was not God!
B. He insisted on the coeternity of the Son and His equality with the Father and viewed the other teachings as heretical
Arius - A
Alexander - B
What does Nicene Creed states:
1.Jesus was truly divine (refuting Arius)
2. Jesus was truly human (refuting Apolinaris)
According to this view divinity and humanity could never exist in one person and thus the divine and human nature of Jesus must have been independent to some degree. Who had this viewpoint?
Nestorius of Constantinople (5th century)
Who opposed the viewpoint of Nestorius Bishop of Constantinople?
Cyril Bishop of Alexandria stating Nestorius view is saying Jesus had two separate being.
The divine and human elements of Jesus were blended to become a single nature. Who has this view and what was it called?
Monk name Eutyches and it was referred to as Monophysitism.
Who had a view which represented a sort of halfway point between Chalcedonian orthodoxy and Monophysitism? And which Empreror supported the same view?
Cyril Bishop of Alexandria supported by Emperor Justinian
What was "the Three Chapters"and who wrote them?
It is a writing that supported the Nestorian doctrine which was written by:
1. Theodore of Mapsuestia
2. Ibas of Edessa
3. Theodoret of Cyrrhus
In the 7th century, Sergius patriarch of Constantinople tacitly uphold the orthodox claim that Jesus had two natures by asserting that Jesus had only a single, divine will. This view is known as?
Note: in AD 638, the Emperor Heraclius (reign 610-641) issued an edict supporting this position.
Where, when and what was the decision of the 1st Ecumenical Council ?
Nicaea in Asia Minor in AD 325.
Decision:The council prohibited leaders in the church from claiming Jesus was a created being and equal to the Father.
Where, when and what was the decision of the 2nd Ecumenical Council ?
Constantinople in AD 381.
Decision:The 1st EC decision was upheld and the Nicene Creed refined.
Where, when and what was the decision of the 3rd Ecumenical Council?
Ephesus in AD 431.
1. Nestorianism was condemned as heresy
2. Designating Mary as "Theotokos" (means God-bearer)
Which Ecumenical Council condemned Monophysitism as heresy? where and when it was held?
4th Ecumenical Council held at Chalcedon in AD 451
Where and when did the 5th Ecumenical Council met?
Constantinople in AD 553
What was the result of the 5th Ecumenical Council?
The EC upheld the Justinian's edicts condemning "the Three Chapters"
When, where and what was the result of the 6th Ecumenical Council?
They met at Constantinople during AD 680-681.
The council denounced Monothelitism as heresy insisting that Jesus had both a divine and human will and that the two operated in perfect harmony with one another.
When, where and what was the result of the 7th Ecumenical Council?
It was held at Nicaea in AD 787.
The council approved the christian usage of icons but carefully distinguish between the acceptable veneration of icons and the idolatrous worship of icons. The council also forbade the appointment of ecclesiastical officials by secular authorities.