CDS 621 - Chapter 1

  1. Language (Definition)
    complex, dynamic system of conventional symbols used for thought and language 

    *If it doesn't grow, it dies (new words added)

    *Pronunciations change too (ex. when and win were not always pronounced the same)
  2. Communication (Definition)
    transfer of information from sender to receiver to achieve a purpose 

    *includes facial expressions, body language, etc.
  3. Speech (Definition)
    the articulation, rate of speech sounds, and quality of the individual's voice (verbal)
  4. Language Disorder (Definition)
    • Difficulty understanding or expressing a symbol system
    • ex) hearing and not understanding, problem with symbol system - learning rules for forming and understanding speech, sign, or written language 

    *Receptive Language always come first; must receive to produce

    *If receptive problem, probably expressive one too.
  5. Late Language Emergence (Late Talker)
    • use the same sequence and mechanisms at a slower pace
    • ex) phonological processes 

    *treatment methods vary
  6. Language Difference
    • Evident in bi-lingual homes
    •      - looks like little to no grasp of the second language 
    •      - may not have mastered skills in both languages 

    • *Do not over/under ID bi-lingual/bi-dialectal
    • ex) is the difference caused because of bilingualism, disorder, or both?
  7. 3 Levels of the Speech Chain Model
    • 1. The acoustic level of communication function 
    • 2. The motor system required for communication 
    • 3. The linguistic component of communication 

    *The linguistic component is the focus of this book/class
  8. 3 Domains of Language
    • Form (Syntax, Morphology, Phonology)
    • Content (Semantics)
    • Use (Pragmatics)
  9. Phonology
    • Sound system of a language
    • Rules that govern sound combos
  10. Morphology
    • The structure of words 
    • The construction of word forms
  11. Syntax
    • Word order and combo to form sentences
    • Relationship among the elements within a system
  12. Semantics
    Meanings of words and sentences
  13. Pragmatics
    Combines form and content in functional and socially appropriate communication
  14. Level I (Level of Evidence for Scientific Studies)
    • Evidence from one well-conducted randomized trial
    • Systematic review (look @ data already done and compare) or meta-analysis of high quality randomized, controlled trial 

    Highest Level, most difficult to obtain 

    • no disorder is the same, especially client behaviors from day to day
    • vast difference of severity fit into one classification 
    • too many factors (environment, exposure)
    • funding
    • development might take over and they no longer qualify
    • ethics requires us to deliver the best therapy (no placebos)
  15. Level II (Level of Evidence for Scientific Studies)
    Similar finding demonstrated from non-standardized experiments (with good experimental design) from several different researchers 

    • groups not very large w/ small age range 
    • not randomly selected
  16. Level III (Level of Evidence for Scientific Studies)
    Well designed non-experimental studies (correlational and case studies)

    • non experimental 
    • describe treatment over time (times vary)
  17. Level IV (Level of Evidence for Scientific Studies)
    • Expert committee report, consensus conference, clinical experience of respected authorities 
    • Experts look at data and give their opinion
  18. Internal Evidence
    what the client presents (behaviors, case history, etc)
  19. External Evidence
    Research Studies, expert opinion
  20. Subject selection
    find a process that would get the study rated at the highest possible 

    Avoid Bias

    • was the group a god match for the test?
    • what could use/cause bias
    • can you do a blind study? (subjects do not know treatment specifics)
    • Double blind study (subjects and administrator do not know treatment specifics)
Card Set
CDS 621 - Chapter 1
CDS 621