PSYC3026.

  1. FUNDER'S SECOND LAW:
    There are no perfect indicators of personality. Only clues. And clues are ambiguous.
  2. FUNDER'S THIRD LAW:
    Something beats nothing 2 times out of 3. E.G. Self-reports, peer descriptions and personality tests could be misleading but E.G. A detective would never ignore evidence.
  3. 4 CLUES:
    • 1. Get them to describe themselves.
    • 2. Get friends and family to describe them.
    • 3. Check how they are faring in life and; 
    • 4. Try to observe what they do and measure their behaviour directly and objectively. These can be called s, i, l and b data.
  4. S-DATA:
    • Asking the person directly (aka. Self-judgement and questionnaires). E.G. Can be closed-questions e.g. Are you friendly yes/no? And open-ended e.g. “what are your personal goals”
    • ADVANTAGES = 1. Can get lots of information. 2. Get to know their thoughts and intentions etc. 3. Hard for other people to gage e.g. self-esteem 4. Causal force E.G. People try to get other people see them the way they want to be seen. Therefore = S-data is more reliable and 5. It’s easy. DISADVANTAGES = 1. Maybe they can’t or don't don’t know that they have a problem. 2. They can lie and 3. Too easy.
  5. I-DATA:
    IT'S THE INFORMANTS RESPONSE. ADVANTAGES= We can get a lot of information e.g. A family member will observe them in lots of different situations e.g. Work etc. 2. They come from real-world observations. 3. Provides context about the immediate situation and their behaviours. 4. Other people are better at rating your characteristics and 5. Causal force e.g. The expectancy effect and behavioral confirmation. DISADVANTAGES = 1. People’s behaviour depends on who they are with. 2. No access to private experiences. 3. Error = e.g. Only weird behaviours might stick and friends can’t always remember everything that their friend has done and 4. Bias.
  6. L-DATA:
    e.g. Real-life facts. ADVANTAGES = 1. Objective and verifiable. 2. Has intrinsic importance. 3. Psychological relevence = e.g. Narcissists post lots of photos of themselves on facebook. DISADVANTAGES =1. Multidetermination = chance. E.g. Some people could have lost their job due to the recesssion not a personality trait and e.g. A messy room could be because of messy guests.
  7. NATURAL B-DATA: BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONS.
    • Done in two ways = Experiments and 2. Physiological measures. ADVANTAGES = 1. Can bring out traits that aren’t normally seen and 2. Objective. DISADVANTAGES = 1. Expensive and 2. The behaviour could be interpreted wrong.
    • **sometimes data can be mixed e.g. Self-reporting your behaviour during the day is a mix of s and b data.
  8. RELIABILITY:
    how reliable is the data? (aka. Does it show what it is supposed to show). Measurement error = caused by extraneous effects that weren’t accounted for e.g. The participants winning the lottery before doing the experiment. Being sleep deprived is also common. Important question = can you get the same result more than oncejQuery112409100263507639328_1535935299538
  9. FACTORS THAT CAUSE UNRELIABILITY?:
    1. Low precision. 2. State of the participants and the experimenter and 3. When there is variation in the environment.
  10. WAYS TO IMPROVE RELIABILITY?:
    1. Care. 2. Make a standard research protocol. 3. Measure something that is important and 4. Aggregation (aka. Averaging). More error-filled data needs more aggregation strategies. TESTS = TEST-RETEST E.G. GET THE SAME SCORE; INTER-RATER, ALTERNATE-FORM E.G. LOOK AT THE SCORES BETWEEN TWO TESTS MEASURING THE SAME THING AND SPLIT-HALF.
  11. REFLECTIVE AND FORMATIVE MEASURES?:
    R = REFLECTS THE CONSTRUCT AND HAS RELIABILITY COEFFICIENT. F = FORMS A CONSTRUCT AND DOES NOT NEED A RELIABILITY COEFFICIENT.
  12. VALIDITY?:
    The degree to which a measurement actually reflects what you are measuring. PROBLEMS = 1. Data needs to be reliable to be valid and 2. E.g. How do you know what intelligence really is? These are considered to be “constructs”. They can’t be touched but they have effects e.g. Gravity. Therefore undergoing “construct validation” is good.
  13. THE TYPES OF VALIDITY?:
    1. FACE VALIDITY; 2. CONTENT VALIDITY E.G. DOES IT COVER EVERYTHING E.G. DOES THE NARCISSISM TEST ONLY COVER SUPERIORITY OR DOES IT CONSIDER OTHER THINGS AS WELL. 3. CRITERION VALIDITY = 1. CONCURRENT E.G. AT THE SAME TIME AND. 2. PREDICTIVE. 4. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY = 1. NOMOLOGICAL NETWORK E.G. THE THEORY IS RELATED TO THE VARIABLES; 2. CONVERGENT = THE SCALE CORRELATES WITH THE RIGHT SCALE AND 3. DISCRIMINANT.
  14. GENERALIZABILITY?:
    Reliability + validity = to what else does the measurement generalize? E.g. Can you generalize one test result to another test result. Consider = gender, show-vs-no-shows, ethnicity etc.
  15. RESEARCH DESIGNS?:
    1. Case-method. 2. Experimental method e.g. Inducing anxiety and 3. Co-relational method e.g. Testing natural anxiety. Both 2. And 3. Are testing the relationship between two variables.
  16. THE STAGES OF KNOWING?:
    1. THE GARDEN OF EDEN = WHEN KNOWLEDGE HAD BEEN MADE CLEAR AND WE HAVE TO ACCEPT IT.  ANYONE WHO DISAGREES IS WRONG. 2. ANYTHING GOES = ALL BELIEFS ARE EQUAL BECAUSE HOW DO WE KNOW WHICH ONE IS RIGHT? AND 3. THINKING CRITICALLY = SOME VIEWPOINTS HAVE BETTER EVIDENCE AND IT'S UP TO US TO EVALUATE IT.
  17. A SCIENTIFIC THEORY MUST BE?:
    PARSIMONIOUS EG. TOO COMPLEX, COMPREHENSIVE EG. NEEDS TO EXPLAIN ALL THE FACTORS, CONSISTENT, TESTABLE, BE SUPPORTED VIA EVIDENCE, PLAUSIBLE, HAVE WELL-DEFINED CONCEPTS THAT CAN BE OPERATIONALIZED AND CLEAR.
  18. THE REFUTABILITY AND FALSIFIABILITY CRITERION?:
    KARL POPPER. A SCIENTIFIC THEORY HAS TO STATE WHAT OBSERVATIONAL DATA IS POSSIBLE AND WHAT OBSERVATIONAL DATA IS NOT POSSIBLE. E.G. PEOPLE HAVE TRAIT "A" E.G. EXTROVERSION. OBSERVATION "B" IS POSSIBLE AND OBSERVATION "C" IS NOT POSSIBLE E.G. GOING TO PARTIES VS. STAYING HOME. DIDN'T THINK THAT ADLER'S AND FREUD'S THEORIES COULD BE FALSIFIED. THEORIES CAN NEVER BE PROVEN TRUE.
  19. THE PLASTER HYPOTHESIS?:
    AFTER THE AGE OF 30++ IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO CHANGE YOUR PERSONALITY. THIS IS BECAUSE OUR BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS GET RIGID.
  20. THE PLASTICITY HYPOTHESIS?:
    OUR PERSONALITY IS MALLEABLE AND CAN CHANGE. IT CHANGES DUE TO LIFE EXPERIENCES, SOCIAL ROLES AND INTERACTIONS + WORKING ON OURSELVES E.G. INSIGHT AND PSYCHOTHERAPY.
  21. CONTINUITY?:
    ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY? == THE MEAN HAS TO STAY THE SAME ACROSS TESTS AND DIFFERENTIAL CONTINUITY? THE RANK-ORDER HAS TO STAY THE SAME.
  22. TEMPERAMENT (THE CAUSES OF STABILITY)
    • behavioral and emotional tendencies (is partly caused by genetics). These tendencies change with age = called herotypic continuity e.g. a shy child might have trouble conversing with strangers when they’re older.
    • THE 3 BASIC FACTORS CHILDHOOD TEMPERAMENT = 1. Positive emotion-ability (e.g. causes extroversion) 2. Negative emotion-ability (e.g. causes neuroticism) and 3. Effortful control (e.g. causes consciousnesses and agreeableness).
  23. PHYSICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ( THE CAUSES OF STABILITY)?:
    e.g. genes, height, weight, cultural attractiveness etc.
  24. BIRTH ORDER (THE CAUSES OF STABILITY)?:
    < gets more attention and then takes on the parents values and goals. They may even become “assistant parent” and help to raise the other siblings. > has to find a niche that isn’t already occupied. Has less responsibilities in the family and has to draw their values from their other siblings. Can be more open-minded and rebel.
  25. EARLY EXPERIENCES (THE CAUSES TO STABILITY?:
    e.g. being rejected by parents makes it hard to form relationships later on in life. Having older parents makes children more attracted to older faces when they are older.
  26. PERSON-ENVIRONMENT TRANSACTIONS (THE CAUSES OF STABILITY)?:
    people seek-out and create environments that are consistent with their personality traits. 1. ACTIVE PERSON-ENVIRONMENT TRANSACTIONS = e.g. an aggressive person might be attracted to other aggressive people which makes them more prone to fights etc. 2. REACTIVE  = an introvert hates parties, but an extrovert likes them. 3. EVOCATIVE = changes their environment instead of choosing them “let’s stop working and go to the bar”.
  27. CUMULATIVE CONTINUITY AND MATURITY?:
    differences become more stable and consistent with age. Happens when the person has a stable environment and psychological maturity.
  28. HOW TO DETERMINE PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT?:
    1. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES = not ideal. The data is coming from people in different generations. = cohort effects. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES = e.g. an experiment shows that participants become more socially dominant, agreeable, conscientious and emotional stable over time. Self-esteem also increased steadily between adolescence and 50 = maturity principle. Problem = other studies have found the opposite.
  29. THE SOCIAL CLOCK?:
    The pressure to reach certain achievements by a certain age e.g. marriage. Some people adhere to it and some fall out of sync. Experiment = has women follow a feminine social clock (e.g. marriage and family), masculine social clock (e.g. Job @28) and no social clock. The latter were more depressed and unsatisfied with life
  30. THE 3 STEPS IN IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT?:
    1. ACTOR = want to develop the social skills that will help you fit into society. Done early e.g. starts to separate from their parents and do things independently e.g. driving. 2. AGENT = become guided by goals and values. Look at the present and starts planning for the future. E.g. choosing a life partner etc. Happens @7-9. 3. AUTHOR = Autobiography and narrative identity. Happens @adolescence. This is important because it shows how the person has viewed their life up until now. E.g. Focus on achieving goals might = high conscientiousness. Redemptive event = bad things that happen that had a good ending e.g. someone died but it brought my family closer together etc.
  31. LIFE GOALS ACROSS THE LIFESPAN?:
    • TEEN = plan for the future. Want to find a spouse, job, education etc.
    • 2. OLD = make meaningful bonds with friends and family. End of life is looming. **caused by a shift in social roles.
  32. THE STEPS OF PERSONALITY TRAITS?:
    PRECONDITION 1 = changing your traits is considered to be desirable. 2. PRECONDITION 2 = changing your traits is considered to be feasible. 3. Self-regulated behavioral changes. >>>> 4. PERCONDITION 3 = self-regulated changes become more habitual and 5. Trait change.
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  34. COMMON PERSONALITY TESTS?:
    THE MINNESOTA MUTLIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY (MMPR) = THE MOST COMMON PERSONALITY TEST (IT CAN ALSO USED FOR EMPLOYMENT SCREENING). IT WAS INITIALLY USED TO TEST FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS. CALIFORNIA PSYCHOLOGICALINVETORY (CPI) = USED ON NORMAL PEOPLE. OTHERS INCLUDE THE 16PF, SVIB, HPI ETC.
  35. THE OMNIBUS TEST?:
    DOUGLAS JACKSON. HAD 20 TRAITS AND 100+ TRUE AND FALSE ITEMS. HAD BIPOLAR SCALES THAT TESTED FOR DOMINANCE AND SOCIAL REPUTATION . HAD 2 VALIDITY SCALES; 1. INFREQUENCY E.G. RESPONDS TO RANDOM MANNER AND 2. DESIRABILITY E.G. SELF VS. OTHERS DESCRIPTIONS. HAD STRONG RELIABILITY (THE MEANS WERE THE SAME OVER 2 WEEKS) AND VALIDITY E.G. THERE WERE POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SIMILAR CONCEPTS AND VICE VERSA.
  36. S-DATA PERSONALITY TESTS?:
    THE SELF-MONITORING SCALE (SMS) == where you monitor how other people react to your behaviour. THE ATTRIBUTIONAL COMPLEXITY SCALE  = asks you to rate how complex your thinking is in relation to the behaviour. Another example e.g. THE STANFORD SHYNESS SURVEY = “are you a shy person yes/no?”.
  37. 4 CONDITIONS MUST BE IN PLACE FOR THE S-DATA PERSONALITY TEST TO WORK?:
    1. Each item has to mean the same thing to the participant and the psychologist. 2. The participant has to make a self-assessment. 3. Has to be recorded accurately and without distortion and 4. All the items in the questionnaire must measure what they’re trying to measure.
  38. NATURAL B-DATA PERSONALITY TESTS?:
    IAT. MMPI = “do you prefer showers or baths?”. Preferring showers is considered to be the more empathetic response. This reveals something about personality.
  39. THE PROJECTIVE HYPOTHESIS?:
    HAVE OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS AND FOCUS ON DEEP AND HIDDEN PERSONALITY TRAITS. e.g. someone’s interpretation of an ambiguous stimulus (e.g. the inkblot) does not come from the stimulus itself (because it does not look like anything) but instead is a “projection” of their needs, feelings, experiences and through processes etc. The interpretations can be either descriptive/subtle. All provide b-data. DISADVANTAGES = 1. They’e expensive and take a long time. 2. Their interpretations can vary. 3. THEY'RE NOT USED AS WIDELY.
  40. OTHER EXAMPLES OF PROJECTIVE TESTS?:
    THE DRAW-A-PERSON-TEST = the interpretation is based on whether e.g. a man or a woman is drawn and whether some parts are drawn or omitted. For example, large eyes might = paranoia and heavy shading = aggression. THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (TAT) = participants have to tell stories about a set of drawings. The themes of the stories are then used to assess their motivational state. E.G. fighting = aggression. THE ROTTER INCOMPLETE SENTENCE BLANK = IT HAS HIGH RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY BUT IT'S NOT DEEP ENOUGH.
  41. OBJECTIVE TESTS?:
    e.g. questions that use yes/no, true/false or on a number scale. However, = objectivity” can be elusive e.g. “like” could mean interest, fondness or tolerance. CAN BE MULIT-CONSTRUCT E.G. THE BIG 5 OR SINGLE CONSTRUCT. E.G. THE MACH-IVV TEST IS AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE OF A SINGLE CHARACTERISTIC.
  42. MACH-IV TEST?:
    THE TWO MAIN FACETS ARE VIEWS AND TACTICS. MEN HAVE HIGHER MACHIAVELLIAN VIEWS AND HIGHER TACTICS. THESE DECREASED IN AGREEABLE COUNTRIES. ***LOOK AT THE NOTES. HAS POSITIVE E.G. PROTRAIT AND NEGATIVE E.G. CONTRAIT ITEMS. THIS MAKES SURE THAT THE PARTICIPANT IS STILL PAYING ATTENTION.
  43. THE TYPES OF RESPONSE BIASES?:
    1.  ACQUIESCENCE BIAS = THEY AGREE OR DISAGREE REGARDLESS OF THE CONTENT. CAN PICK UP ON IT. 2. DEVIATION = THEY RESPOND IN A WEIRD WAY. SOCIAL DESIRABILITY E.G. PARTICIPANTS TRY TO PRESENT THEMSELVES IN A MORE FAVOURABLE LIGHT. CAN BE CONTROLLED VIA 1. SELF-DECEPTION E.G. "I DON'T CARE WHAT OTHER PEOPLE THINK OF ME" AND 2. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT E.G. "I DON'T GOSSIP ABOUT OTHER PEOPLE'S BUSINESS". 4. EXTREME RESPONDING. THERE'S CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES E.G. SOUTH AMERICANS WILL RESPOND MORE EXTREMELY THAN KOREANS.
  44. WHY DO OBJECTIVE TESTS HAVE SO MANY ITEMS?:
    asking similar questions will eliminate 1. Interpreting the question in a certain way and 2. Interpretations that are affected by external factors.
  45. THE THREE WAYS TO CONSTRUCT AN OBJECTIVE TEST?:
    RATIONAL E.G. THE PRF, EMPERICAL E.G. THE MMPI AND FACTOR-ANALYTIC E.G. THE IPIP MEASURE OF THE BIG 5.
  46. THE RATIONAL METHOD OF OBJECTIVE TESTS?:
    U.S government made a questionnaire to stop mentally ill people from becoming soldiers in WWI. However, this became impractical as more and more people became soldiers. Then made a questionnaire and if the person answered “yes” to certain % they completed a personal interview and the others became soldiers = the woodworth personality data sheet (the wpds).
  47. THE FACTOR-ANALYSIS METHOD?:jQuery112407490583416773557_1535947285139jQuery112404041930764169106_1535949899403jQuery1124030306851077395214_1535954189855?
    Makes groups (e.g. music) that have things in common & then ties them into a “factor”. 1. Come up with a large number of items. 2. Administer them to participants. 3. Use your computer to group items that have some sort of correlation with each other. 4. Test them on new participants. E.g. warmth = 1. I trust strangers (true). 2. I like to turn up to things when someone invites me (true) and 3. I could be a hermit (false).
  48. PROBLEMS WITH THE FACTOR-ANALYSIS METHOD?:
    1. It depends on how many items you have to start with. 2. A computer can decide how items are statistically related, but you will have to figure out their conceptual relationship.
  49. THE EMPIRICAL METHOD?:
    1. Come up with a lot of items. 2. Collect a group of participants who have already been divided into the groups that you are interested in e.g. jobs and religion. 3. Test the participants. 4. Compare the data. (E.G. people in certain groups e.g. schizophrenic will answer the questions in a certain way. We normally use a set of initial participants to cross-validate the findings”). However, normally there is a lack of concern with the item content (e.g. It causes problems with content validity).
  50. THE PROBLEMS WITH PERSONALITY TESTING?:
    1. There are “good” traits and “bad” traits. 2. Can be unethical and harmful. (e.g. when psychologists look at race and sex differences). 3.~ problems truthfulness (e.g. psychologists can fabriacate data) and deception.
  51. THE CONSEQUENCES OF PEOPLE JUDGING YOUR PERSONALITY?:
    effects reputation. This then effects your 1. Opportunities = e.g. Shy people avoid social environments and become isolated. Shy people can also be seen as being cold and aloof. 2. Expectancies = e.g. false-feedback about being an intelligence “bloomer” actually caused these school children to bloom. .
  52. ROBERT ROSETHAL'S 4-FACTOR THEORY?:
    Thought that children bloomed because of 1. Climate = teachers treat them better. 2. Feedback. 3. Input – teachers try to teach more and harder material and 4. Output = teachers provided the children with more opportunties to show what they have learned.
  53. CONVERGENT VALIDATION?:
    Psychologists went through a phase where they didn’t care about accuracy (because how can you accurately measure personality?). CRITICAL REALISM IS USEFUL = means not all interpretations of reality are correct when there isn’t a “single truth”. Should just try to make the best judgement you can. THEREFORE USE THE DUCK TEST = if it looks like and duck and it quacks like a duck then it is probably (but not 100%) a duck. Done by putting together information (e.g. appearance and quackiness) to make a judgement (e.g. duck). THE TWO TYPES OF PRIMARY CONVERGING DATA = 1. interjudge agreement e.g. everyone thinks that you are conscientious and 2. Behavioral prediction e.g. I think you’re conscientious and you also arrive on time.
  54. FIRST IMPRESSIONS?:
    1. The face = people tend to look at “configural” properties (~e.g. the overall arrangement of features) and make a judgement e.g. personality or sexuality. 2. Dress. 3. Speaking-tone. 4. Bedroom. 5. Music listened to. 6. How they tell a story. 7. Their handsake.
  55. WHO MAKES THE BEST TARGET FOR JUDGEMENT AND WHAT TRAITS ARE EASIER TO JUDGE THAN OTHERS?:
    The “what you see is what you get” kind of people. Their behaviour is often stable and organized and even acquaintances can describe their behaviour across different settings. Traits like e.g. extroversion and talkativeness are easier to gage.
  56. BOUNDARY ON THE ACQUAINTANCESHIP EFFECT?:
    e.g. Lecturer asks a student and his wife to predict how he will act in the lecture next week. Both will have a good answer. However, the student will not be able to predict his behaviour outside of the lecture. The wife was able to generalize your behaviour.
  57. THE REALISTIC ACCURACY MODEL (WHEN A TRAIT WILL BE JUDGED CORRECTLY)?:
    1. They’re doing something relevant. 2. The information is available to be judged. 3. It is detectable and 4. The judge must utilize it correctly. It’s also easier to learn something about someone when watching them in a stressful or emotional situation e.g. doing a speech.
  58. THE EFFECTS OF EXTENDED PHENOTYPE ON PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT?:
    THREE FACES. ONE WITH MAKEUP, ONE WITH GLAMOROUS MAKEUP AND ONE WITH NO MAKEUP. THE WOMEN WHO WORE MORE MAKEUP WERE CONSIDERED TO BE MORE HOT, LIKABLE, CONFIDENT AND LESS TRUSTWORTHY E.G. SUPERFICIAL.
  59. ALLPORT?:
    UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS CAN NOT BE STUDIED. MORE NOMOTHETIC E.G. DON'T LOOK AT THE UNIQUE TRAITS IN PEOPLE BUT LOOK AT THE WHOLE THAN IDIOGRAPHIC. POPPER = BELIEVED THAT BOTH GENERAL AND UNIQUE CAN BE MEASURED.
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  61. GORDON ALLPORT?:
    • TRAITS ARE ARE GENERALIZED NEUROPSYCHIC SYSTEM (TO DO WITH THE INDIVIDUAL) THAT HAS THE CAPACITY TO RENDER MANY STIMULI UNIMPORTANT AND GUIDE CONSISTENT FORMS OF BEHAVIOR.
    • - THEY ARE NOT JUST DESCRIPTIONS
    • - THEY ARE MORE GENERALIZED THAT HABITS AND EXIST EVEN WHEN HABITS ARE INCONSISTENT WITH A TRAIT
    • - THEY EXIST IN A UNIQUE WAY (E.G. THE IDEOGRAPHIC APPROCH) AND IN THE POPULATION (E.G. THE NOMOTHETIC APPROACH)
    • - HAVE STATISTICAL AND EMPERICAL EVIDENCE.
  62. IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT THE TRAIT APPROACH?:
    1. A lot of the research uses correlational designs. EG. Scoring high on "dominance" will predict that that person will act in a dominant manner and 2. Looks primarily at individual differences E.G. it measures the degree to which someone is more or less dominant than someone else.
  63. INCONSISTENCY?:
    e.g. A person can be shy with strangers but open and warm towards family members or more dominant towards women etc. Therefore, situations are also important. Older people are more consistent than adolescents etc. Therefore, people differ to the degree that they have developed a consistent personality.
  64. THE THREE PROBLEMS IN THE PERSON-SITUATION DEBATE?:
    Does someone’s personality transcend the immediate situation and guide their actions or do they entirely depend on the situation that they are in? 2. Are the normal intuitions about people flawed? And 3. Why do psychologists continue to argue personality?
  65. THE ARGUMENTS FOR SITUATIONISM?:
    1. There is a limit on how well you can predict someone’s behaviour based on their personality. 2. Therefore situations are more important and 3. Traits are not descriptive, and people tend to think that people are more consistent than they really are.
  66. EXPERIMENTS DONE BY THE SITUATIONISTS?:
    1. $20 and $1 for a bad experiment. 2. The bystander experiment where the participants were less likely to help if there were lots of people around and 3. Milgram’s experiments. it found similar effect sizes.
  67. THE ARGUMENTS FOR PERSONALITY?:
    Individual differences are maintained across situations and how the behavior is performed doesn’t matter. E.G. participants interacted with different people across 2 sessions and their behaviour was recorded. They appeared e.g. Less nervous and more relaxed in the second session. However, their behaviour was consistent and had r = 0.60. Therefore === situations are important, but people are also consistent with their behaviour.
  68. INTERACTIONISM?:
    where behavioral consistency (e.g. Personality) and behavioral change (e.g. Situationists) can co-exist. THE 3 WAYS IN WHICH THEY INTERACT? = 1. Personality depends on the situation and vice versa. Eg. Caffeine had no effect on participants until their personality had been taken into account E.G. The introverts performance decreased and the extroverts performance got way better. 2. People seek out different situations and 3. The way in which people are able to change situations.
  69. THE SINGLE-TRAIT APPROACH
    “what do people like that do?”. E.G. self-monitoring traits and narcissism.
  70. THE MANY-TRAIT APPROACH?:
    “who does that (e.g. behaviour)?”. E.G. you could examine personality traits by counting how many times they use a certain word. You would then state that someone who says word “x” a lot will have a certain type of personality.
  71. THE ESSENTIAL-TRAIT APPROACH?:
    "what traits are the most important one?”. Tries to narrow down the list of traits to the ones that actually matter e.g. the big 5
  72. THE TYPOLOGICAL APPROACH?:
    can we compare people and identify groups of people who resemble each other and are different from everybody else? Do they belong to the same “type”?.
  73. THE 3 TYPES OF PEOPLE IN THE TYPOLOGICAL APPROACH?:
    There is a well-adjusted person and 2 maladjusted types = 1. The maladjusted overcontrolling type (aka. Uptight) and 2. The maladjusted undercontrolling type (AKA. They’re too impulsive and is more likely to be involved in crime and unprotected sex).
  74. SELF-MONITERING?:
    HIGH-MONITORS? = are people who perform differently in different situations. They look for cues that tell them how to act and then adjust their behaviour. They are adaptable and sensitive. They are better actors. LOW -MONITORS? = people who are the same on the inside and the outside. They are more consistent regardless of the situation. Their behaviour is guided more by their inner personality. H = adaptable and sensitive and They are self-directed and honest. They do better in job-interviews.
  75. NARCISSISM?:
    Excessive self-love. They are very charming and put more effort into making a good first impression. They can become aggressive when their positive self-image is threatened and they don’t like failure. They have bad coping-strategies and they have problems controlling their impulses and gratification. They score higher on life-satisfaction.
  76. THE CALIFORNIA Q-TEST?:
    100 phases. Each one refers to a certain personality trait. The items are sorted into 9 categories where 1 = highly uncharacteristic and 9 = highly characteristic. The distribution will be forced. Can be sorted by the person, an acquaintance, researcher or by a psychotherapist.
  77. WORD USE EXPERIMENT?:
    participants talked about their life history and future prospects. Their describing words were recorded. E.G. the participants who used a lot of  “certainty” words were described as being “intelligent, fluent, ambitious and generous”.
  78. THE BIG 5?:
    orthogonal e.g. it gets a rating that is high or low. Can be used to predict career success and health better than socio-economic status etc. A+c+n = emotional stability and e+o = plasticity. CREATED BY MCCRAE, GOLDBURG AND COSTA. THEY USED DIFFERENT APPROACHES EG SELF-REPORTS AND PEER-RATING TO COME TO THE SAME SOLUTION. THEY ARE HERITABLE AND UNAFFECTED BY THE ENVIRONMENT. THEY ARE CONSIDERED TO BE HIGHER-RODER TRAITS RATHER THAN LOWER-ORDER TRAITS.
  79. THE BIG 5?:
    • E = introverts hate sensory stimuluation e.g. loud noises etc.  Their responses to calm stimuli are the same. “active, dominant, forceful, adventurous and outspoken”. They’re more popular and are more sensitive to rewards. They’re also likely to spend their money on experiences.
    • N = can’t deal with problems in their life. e.g. social threats (where people do not support them). They’re more unhappy, anxious, physically sick and dissatisfied.
    • C = E.G. integrity and trustworthiness. Tested in job-interviews. They avoid risky behaviour e.g. they tend to drive safer.
    • A === e.g. cooperative, conform and complience, friendly, likeability and warmth. How people get along with each other. They don’t always agree to everything e.g. an affair. E.g. children with internalized problems are less likely to be bullied if they are agreeable. This is because a friendly and non-confrontational outlook can protect you from abuse.
    • OTE/I = e.g. creative, imaginitive, open-minded and clever. They’re more likely to play an instrument and do drugs.
  80. THE FACEBOOK EXPERIMENT? =
    58000 PARTICIPANTS GAVE THEIR "FACEBOOK" LIKES. THEIR LIKES SIGNIFICANTLY PREDICTED THEIR PERSONALITY AND DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION. HAD TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY.
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  82. THE 4 TEMPERAMENTS?:
    PHLEGM = QUIET AND UNEMOTIONAL; YELLOW BILE = IMPULSIVE AND EASILY ANGERED; BLOOD = LIVELY, OPTIMISTIC AND COURAGEOUS AND; BLACK BILE = SAD, DEPRESSED AND PESSIMISTIC
  83. PHYSIOGOMY?:
    FACES = PERSONALITY TRAITS. Still believed that wider faces are more aggressive.
  84. THE BIG 5 AND THE BRAIN?:
    DEYOUNG ET. AL (2010). 116 PARTICIPANTS. BELIEVED THAT A GREATER THAN AVERAGE VOLUME = A GREATER THAN AVERAGE POWER TO DO THINGS. MEDIUM CORRELATION E.G. MORE NEURONS IN THAT BRAIN REGION WILL ^ TRAIT.
  85. PHRENOLOGY?:
    TRAITS ARE RELATED TO DIFFERENT BRAIN REGIONS. CAN TELL PERSONALITY BY TOUCHING THE BUMPS ON THE SKULL. LOMBROSO USED BOTH TO ARGUE == SOME PEOPLE ARE BORN CRIMINALS. Still believed that traits are used more in different regions (e.g. volume).
  86. CRIMINAL EXPERIMENT?:
    PARTICIPANTS WERE GOOD AT IDENTIFIYING THE CRIMINALS E.G. ESPECIALLY DRUG DEALERS.
  87. BODY TYPES?:
    ECTOMORPH e.g. fragile and shy; MESOMORPH e.g. courageous and likes competition and; ENDOMORPH = sociable.
  88. THE TWO TYPES OF PROJECTIONS?:
    1. Dendrites = which receive stimulation and 2. Axons = which pass the message on.
  89. THE TWO TYPES OF DENDRITES?:
    1. Afferent nerves = Long. Extend from the CNS to the rest of the body. They send messages about how the body is doing to the CNS; 2. Efferent nerves = They send impulses and instructions from the CNS to the muscles, glands and other organs. They have extra-long axons.
  90. THE IMPORTANT PARTS IN THE BRAIN?:
    1. THALAMUS = regulates arousal etc; 2. HYPOTHALAMUS = at the bottom of the brain. Secretes hormones (e.g. Chemicals that effect the body); 3. AMYGDALA = emotion; 4. HIPPO-CAMPUS = processes memories; 5. CORTEX = the outer layer of the brain. Has 6 layers that all have different anatomical structures and functions; 7. NEOCORTEX = the outermost layer. It’s wrinkled and; 8. THE FRONTAL LOBES = cognition, planning, DECISION-MAKING, emotions and moral reasoning. ARE LINKED TO PSYCHOPATHY AND CONSCIENTIOUSNESS WHEN DAMAGED.
  91. HOW TO RESEARCH THE BRAIN?:
    1. BRAIN DAMAGE e.g. Lesioned; 2. BRAIN STIMULATION = done with electrodes e.g. Found that stimulating the left substania-nigra can produce symptoms of depression. E.G. TMS = can knock-out certain brain regions e.g. Speech. 3. Brain imaging = e.g. EEG, MEG, PET, X-RAYS, CT SCANS, FMRI (e.g. Bold) and MRIs. There's a new one called perfusion imaging = uses arterial spin labeling. More precise than bold (but it still uses the same logic e.g. Emotion is evoked and the difference between that and the baseline is measured).
  92. THE AMYGDALA?:
    Bottom + behind the hypothalamus. Controls emotions e.g. When removed from rhesus monkeys they became less aggressive and less fearful etc. People with anxiety and PTSD have increased activity in their amygdala when shown a stranger. Controls social attraction and sexual responsiveness + whether the person thinks the stimulus will provide them with a threat or a reward. E.g. Can control your urges to kill. ^ ANXIETY + NEUROTICISM.
  93. THE FRONTAL LOBES AND EMOTION?:
    .g. L = more active when approaching something pleasant and; R = more active when approaching something that is unpleasant or frightening. L = more emotional stability. Can help inhibit your responses to unpleasant stimuli which ^ a good feeling and; R = more neuroticism.
  94. ELLIOT?:
    had a brain tumor removed (+ a lot of his cerebral cortex) from the midline of his brain. Lost his ability to make judgements e.g. He couldn’t decide what to eat at a restaurant. Also could not feel lots of good and bad emotions.
  95. CAPGRAS SYNDROME?:
    caused by damage to the right frontal lobe. Think that your family members have been replaced.
  96. THE ANTERIOR CINGULATE AND PROTERIOR CORTEX?:
    AC = on top of the corpus callosum (which connects the two halves) + extends all the way from the front to the back of the brain. Helps experience normal emotions = projects inhibitory circuits to the amygdala). PC = processes time and space. It’s relationship with personality traits? = 1. Responds more in extraverts to positive words and 2. Responds more or unexpected or oddball tasks in people with high neuroticism.
  97. NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND HORMONES?:
    1. NEUROTRANSMITTERS = lets neurons commmunicate with each other. travel across the synapse and causes either an excitatory (when the second neuron fires) or inhibitory (when the second neuron is suppressed) reaction and; 2. HORMONES = spread via the bloodstream. Belong to both E + I categories e.g. Norepinephrine works in the brain as a neurotransmitter, but it also responds to stress in the adrenal glands.
  98. DOPAMINE?:
    responds to rewards and motivation. LACK = can cause Parkinson’s disease and bipolar. Can also cause extraversion and impulsivity. It’s related to the “go” or “behavioural activation system” that is connected to the nucleus acumens. It reinforces the motivation to seek rewards.
  99. SEROTONIN?:
    works to inhibit behavioral impulses. SSRI’S help people get more work done and feel better.
  100. Epinephrine and norepinephrine?:
    aka. Adrenaline and noradrenaline. Respond to stress e.g. Adrenaline rush where the heart speeds up, digestion stops, and the muscles become tense. Also related to “oxytocin” which promotes social behaviour and relaxation (in women).
  101. TESTOSTERONE?:
    aggression and dominant behaviour e.g. ^ when competing for the attention of attractive women. The same behaviour is found in people who take anabolic steroids. Can’t control their aggression and sexuality. It’s also an effect e.g. Their testosterone levels go up after they are allowed to drive an expensive car etc.
  102. CORTISOL?:
    glucocorticoid hormone = responds to physical and psychological stress. People who have high anxiety and depression tend to have chronically higher levels of cortisol (however, it’s an effect because injecting cortisol into people doesn’t cause stress). Low = PTSD.
  103. OXYTOCIN?:
    “the love hormone”. Important for mother-child bonding and romantic relationships. ^ with sexual activity and orgasm in women. Also makes people less scared e.g. will rate strangers as being more attractive and trustworthy.
  104. BARLOW?:
    1. GENERAL BIOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY e.g. Stress. 2. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL VULNERBILITY = caused by environmental factors e.g. poor parenting or a lack of a warm and caring environment and 3. COMBINE TO FORM A GENERAL PROBLEM WITH HANDLING STESS e.g. Neuroticism. What happens next will depend on their environment e.g. if their family overreacts to a cold then they might develop a fear of germs.
  105. EPIGENETICS?:
    recently shown that early life experience can affect how a gene is expressed. e.g. Rat’s stress depends on how much attention and grooming they had when they were little.
  106. WHAT DOES THE EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH TO PERSONALITY ASSUME?:
    that certain behaviours developed because they were helpful ++and important for survival. E.g. The more likely it is to help an individual survive and reproduce.
  107. AGGRESSION AND ALTRUISM?:
    aggression = helps protect territory, property and mates. Also leads to social dominance and higher status. Can also produce war? Altruism = better because your genes might make it to the next generation even if you don’t have any offspring yourself. This is called “inclusive fitness”.
  108. SELF-ESTEEM?:
    according to the “sociomotor theory” it evolved to monitor the degree to which a person is accepted by others. e.g. Rejection from the tribe = death in the African savannah. e.g. when our self-esteem is down we are more motivated to do things that will make people like us.
  109. DEPRESSION?:
    There are different types of depression e.g. 1. Social loss e.g. 2. Breakup = makes you to cry and seek social support. 3. Failure e.g. Fatigue and shame. ~~these pain signals tell us that something is wrong and that it needs to be fixed. e.g. A risk to your social life means that you now have a reduced chance of breeding. Antidepressants block depressive symptoms which could increase their risk to chronic negative life events and poorer outcomes in these situations.
  110. ATTRACTION?:
    women like ^ finance and; men like attractive women. Want women who are younger (because they need to be able to bare and look after children). Women want men who are older (they prefer resources because sperm can be produced at most ages). Therefore, men will advertise their financial status and women will advertise their body.
  111. MATING STRATEGIES?:
    men are sexual partners e.g. they care less about who they mate with. Engage in more wishful thinking and think that most women are sexually interested in them. Women are pickier. Want monogamy and stable relationships. This is because men want to ^ their reproduction rate. Women want more viable offspring and someone who can support them. In saying this, people do “attach” and want to stay with their romantic partners.
  112. SOCIOSEXUALITY?:
    the willingness to engage in sexual relations without having a serious relationship.
  113. THE SEXY-SON HYPOTHESIS?:
    there are few women that have this atypical reproductive strategy. The ones that do will prefer to have sex with an attractive man because if they have a boy and the father leaves ~~ then there is a greater chance that the son will be attractive. The “sexy-son” will have more children which ^^the number of grandchildren that the woman has.
  114. THE FAST-LIFE HYPOTHESIS?:
    best suited to species that live in dangerous circumstances and die young e.g. Rabbits. Safe and predictable environments = slower individuals. This is better but there are trade-offs.
  115. HOW DO WE ACCOUNT FOR INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES?:
    • 1. Behaviour evolves with environmental experiences e.g. growing up without a father = reach sexual maturity faster and have more sexual partners than someone who grows up with a father.
    • 2. We do things that match our other characteristics e.g extraversion and attractiveness.
    • 3. Frequency dependent e.g. If everyone was a psychopath then you would never be able to trust anyone.
  116. WHY ARE EVOLUTIONARY SPECULATIONS HARD TO TEST?:
    There are assumptions like e.g. Everyone wants to reproduce and 2. The “dilemma of the rarely exercised option” e.g. Rapists and step-parents who are child abusers. We assume that people’s current behaviours were caused by their past behaviours and that these are biologically rooted. Attraction might be rooted in the different social roles that men and women have. E.g. Why the wealth of the woman might matter less to a man.
Author
e0dunne
ID
342119
Card Set
PSYC3026.
Description
PSYC3026.
Updated