1. This allows cells to communicate with each other to regulate body activities
    Chemical messengers
  2. It is an organ consisting of epithelial cells that specialize in secretion
  3. Four classes/categories of chemical messengers are?
    • 1. Autocrine chemical messengers
    • 2. Paracrine chemical messengers
    • 3. Neurotransmitters
    • 4. Endocrine chemical messengers
  4. This chemical are listed in multiple categories because they have several functions and cannot be restricted into just one class
  5. They are nerve impulses that trigger the release of mediator (messenger) molecules
  6. Endocrine system controls body activities by releasing mediators called
  7. to excite or get moving
  8. It is a mediator molecule that is released in one part of the body but regulates the activity of cells in other parts of the body. It enters interstitial fluid and bloodstream
  9. This act as both neurotransmitter (released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons) and hormone (released by chromaffin cells of A. Medulla)
  10. It secrete their products into ducts into body cavities, lumen of an organ, outer surface.
    Exocrine glands
  11. It includes sudoriferous (sweat), sebaceous (oil), mucous, digestive glands
    Exocrine glands
  12. It secretes their products into the interstitial fluid surrounding secretory cells
    Endocrine glands
  13. It includes pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands.
    Endocrine glands
  14. study of endocrine system
  15. If a hormone is present in excess, the number of target cell receptors may decrease ---an effect called ___
  16. It makes a target cell less sensitive to a hormone
  17. It makes a target cell more sensitive to a hormone.
  18. most endocrine hormones; they pass from the secretory cells that make them into interstitial fluid then into blood.
    Circulating hormones
  19. act locally on neighboring cells or on the same cell
    Local hormones
  20. stimulates the cell that originally secreted it/act on the same cell that secreted them
    Autocrine chemical messengers
  21. act locally on neighboring cells; secreted by one cell type into the extracellular fluid and affect surrounding cells
    Paracrine chemical messengers
  22. secreted by neurons that activate an adjacent; paracrine agents
  23. secreted into the bloodstream; travel to general circulation to target cells
    Endocrine chemical messengers
  24. refers to the total amount of a signal that is produced
  25. the hormones secreted by most endocrine glands; consists of fluctuation in the concentration of hormones in bloodstream
    Amplitude-modulated signals
  26. the all-or-none action potentials carried along axons; vary in the number of signals sent but not In the amount of signal sent.
    Frequency-modulated signals
  27. refers to how often a signal is sent in a certain period of time
  28. Characteristics of Hormones
    • 1. Stability
    • 2. Communication
    • 3. Distribution
  29. the amount of time it takes for 50% of the circulating hormone to be removed from the circulation and excreted.
  30. Hormones requiring a transport chaperone bind to blood proteins called ___
    binding proteins
  31. Once hormones attach to a binding protein they are then called ____
    binding hormones
  32. Once the hormones detach from the binding protein, then they are called ____
    free hormones
  33. Chemical classes of Hormones
    • 1. Lipid-soluble hormones
    • 2. Water-soluble hormones
  34. include steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and nitric oxide; nonpolar
    Lipid-soluble hormones
  35. include amine hormones, peptide and protein hormones, and eicosanoid hormones; polar
    Water-soluble hormones
  36. – results in relatively constant blood levels of hormone over long periods of time
    Chronic Hormone secretion
  37. occurs when the hormone’s concentration changes suddenly and irregularly and its circulating levels differ with each stimulus
    acute hormone secretion
  38. occurs when hormones are secreted at fairly predictable intervals and concentrations
    episodic hormone secretion
  39. they circulate in the blood, and the word _____ refers to body fluids
    Humoral Stimuli --- humoral
  40. This stimulates the release of hormones when a change in extracellular fluid is detected
    Humoral Stimuli
  41. second type of hormone regulation; neurons release a neurotransmitter into a synapse with hormone-producing cells
    Neural Stimuli
  42. neuro-peptides stimulate hormone secretion from other endocrine cells; reserved for hormones from the hypothalamus
    releasing hormones
  43. occurs when hormones stimulate the secretion of other hormones.
    Hormonal Stimuli
  44. from hypothalamus, prevent the secretion of tropic hormones from pituitary gland
    inhibiting hormones
  45. hormone’s secretion is inhibited by the hormone itself; prevent the secretion of the hormone in question; self-limiting system
    Negative Feedback
  46. promote the further synthesis and secretion of the tropic hormone; stimulates even more secretion of the original hormone; self-propagating system
    Positive Feedback
  47. Hormones exert their actions by binding to target cell proteins called ___
  48. – specific portion of each receptor molecule where a hormone binds
    Receptor site
  49. are places where a chemical signal binds onto a receptor
    Receptor Sites
  50. The tendency for each type of hormone to bind to one type of receptor, and not to others, is called ___
  51. REMEMBER: 
    Lipid-soluble hormones bind to _____
    Water-soluble hormones bind to ___
    • nuclear receptors
    • membrane-bound receptors
  52. Functions of Endocrine System
    • 1. Regulation of metabolism
    • 2. Control of food intake and digestion
    • 3. Modulation of tissue development
    • 4. Regulation of ion levels
    • 5. Control of water balance
    • 6. Changes in heart rate and BP
    • 7. Control of blood glucose
    • 8. Control of reproductive functions
    • 9. Stimulation of uterine contractions and milk release
    • 10. Modulation of immune system function
  53. Two important  structures for integrating the nervous system and the endocrine system are
    • pituitary gland (hypophysis) 
    • hypothalamus
  54. was called the “master” endocrine gland because it secretes several hormones that control other endocrine gland (secretes 7 different hormones)
    Pituitary Gland
  55. master of pituitary gland; major link between the nervous system and endocrine system (synthesized 9 different hormones)
  56. It is a pea-shaped structure, lies in hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
    Pituitary Gland
  57. stalk of tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
  58. It is a lobe of pituitary gland that is called the neurohypophysis because it is continuous with the hypothalamus in the brain.
    Posterior Pituitary
  59. Two parts of posterior pituitary
    • pars nervosa
    • pars intermedia
  60. It is a part of posterior pituitary that is larger bulbar portion, and infundibulum
    pars nervosa
  61. It is a part of posterior pituitary that 
    atrophies during human fetal development and ceases to exist as a separate lobe
    pars intermedia
  62. It is a lobe of pituitary gland that develops as an outpocketing of the roof of the embryonic oral cavity called the pituitary diverticulum
    Anterior Pituitary
  63. It is a lobe of pituitary gland that develops as an outpocketing of the roof of the embryonic oral cavity called the pituitary diverticulum
  64. It is a lobe of pituitary gland that is also called the adenohypophysis; accounts for about 75%  of the total weight of the gland and made of epithelial tissue
    anterior pituitary
  65. two parts of anterior pituitary gland
    • pars distalis
    • pars tuberalis
  66. is one of the major portal systems in the body; system of blood vessel that connects the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland
    Hypothalamohypophysial (Hypophyseal) Portal System
  67. Hypothalamic hormones that stimulate anterior pituitary secretion are called ___
    releasing hormones
  68. Hypothalamic hormones that decrease anterior pituitary hormone secretion are called ___
    inhibiting hormones
  69. a water conservation hormone; prevents the output of large amounts of urine; a hormone which is responsible for the decreasing urine production
    Antidiuretic Hormone
  70. – is an important reproductive hormone; stimulates labor in pregnant mammal; causes contraction of uterine smooth muscle in nonpregnant women
  71. THYROID GLAND is Made up of two lobes connected by a narrow band called ___
  72. main function is to secrete thyroid hormone
    thyroid gland
  73. small spheres with walls that consist of simple cuboidal epithelium
    Thyroid Follicles
  74. cells beside the thyroid follicle
    Parafollicular cells
  75. lack of thyroid hormones
  76. elevated rate of thyroid hormones
  77. Embedded on the lobes of the thyroid gland, and are made up of two cell types: oxyphils and chief cells
    Parathyroid gland
  78. function to secrete parathyroid hormone
    chief cells
  79. abnormal increase in the secretion of PTH = tumor
  80. increased PTH mean increase in bone resorption making the bones become soft and easily fractured; muscle and nerves become less excitable
  81. abnormal decrease in PTH secretion which results to a decrease in blood calcium levels
  82. a condition that happens when the parathyroid gland is inactive which causes symptoms of nervousness, spasms, convulsions.
  83. two small glands located superior to each kidney
    Adrenal glands
  84. two parts of Adrenal gland
    • Adrenal Medulla (inner)
    • Adrenal Cortex (outer)
  85. produces the hormone Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
    Adrenal Medulla
  86. produces mineralocoticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens
    Adrenal cortex
  87. first class of hormones secreted by the outer layer of the adrenal cortex; helps regulate blood volume/levels
  88. major hormone of first class; causes Na+ and water to be retained in the body and increases the rate at which K+ is eliminated
  89. act as an enzyme; causes blood protein called angiotensinogen to be converted to angiotensin I
  90. protein causes angiotensin I to be converted to angiotensin II
    ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme)
  91. causes smooth muscle in blood vessels to constrict; acts on the A. cortex to increase aldosterone secretion
    Angiotensin II
  92. second class of hormones secreted by middle layer of A. cortex; helps regulate blood nutrients levels
  93. major hormone of 2nd class, increase the breakdown of proteins and lipids and increases their conversion to forms of energy the body can use; reduced inflammatory/immune response
  94. reduce inflammation caused by injuries; reduce immune/inflammatory responses
  95. bind to membrane-bound receptors and regulate the secretion of cortisol from the adrenal cortex
    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Molecules
  96. third class of hormones secreted by the inner layer of A.cortex; stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics
  97. dispersed throughout the exocrine portion of the pancreas; secrete three hormones: insulin, glucagon, somatostatin
    Pancreatic Islets
  98. Pancreatic Islets has four types of cells:
    • a. Alpha Cells
    • b. Beta Cells
    • c. Delta Cells
    • d. F cells
  99. This type of Pancreatic Islets secretes glucagon

    D) Alpha Cells (A Cells)
  100. This type of Pancreatic Islets secretes insulin

    D) Beta Cells (B Cells)
  101. This type of Pancreatic Islets secretes somatostatin

    D) Delta Cells (D Cells)
  102. This type of Pancreatic Islets secretes pancreatic polypeptide

    B) F Cells
  103. a condition where the pH of the body fluids is below normal
  104. response to the elevated blood glucose levels
  105. area of the hypothalamus that controls appetite
    Satiety center
  106. when blood glucose levels are low
  107. response to food intake
  108. growth and development of the male reproductive structures; muscle enlargement; growth of body hair; voice changes; male sexual drive
  109. development and function of female reproductive structures and other female sexual characteristics                                    - enlargement of breasts and distribution of adipose tissue; female menstrual cycle
    Estrogen & Progesterone
  110. located posterior to the sternum between lungs, largest in infants and children; produces thymosin (WBC. immune system)
  111. found on the third ventricle of the brain;
    secretory cells called pinealocytes;
    secretes melatonin (body’s wake and sleep cycles)
    Pineal gland
  112. intercellular signals; autocrine and paracrine chemical signals; cause relaxation or contraction of smooth muscle; role in inflammation, blood vessel dilation
  113. secreted by kidneys, in response to reduced oxygen levels in the kidney; acts on bone marrow to increase the RBC production
  114. – important source of hormones that maintain pregnancy and stimulate breast development
  115. dysfunction of the posterior pituitary, due to defects in ADH receptors or inability to secrete ADH
    Diabetes Insipidus
  116. results from hyposecretion of ADH (brain tumor, head trauma, brain surgery)
    Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus
  117. kidneys do not respond to ADH, kidneys nonfunctional or damaged
    Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
  118. hypersecretion of cortisol by A.cortex; characterized by breakdown of muscle proteins and redistribution body fat
    Cushing's Syndrome
  119. caused by an inability to produce or use insulin
    Diabetes Mellitus
  120. excessive urine production
  121. excessive thirst
  122. excessive eating
  123. insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus                                                                                - occurs because the person’s immune system destroys the pancreatic beta cells
    Type 1 Diabetes
  124. non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus                                                                        -more common, representing 90% of all cases; often occurs in obese people who are over age 35
    Type 2 Diabetes
Card Set
loooooong quiz